Low field-relevant tebufenozide concentrations affect reproduction in Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) in a long-term toxicity test
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- Tassou, K.T. & Schulz, R. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20: 3735. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1311-4
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A few studies reporting the effects of tebufenozide, a non-steroidal ecdysone agonist that mimics natural moulting hormones in chironomids exist in the literature. However, nothing is known about its chronic or multigenerational effects on the reproduction of aquatic insects, although tebufenozide is present in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we investigated the chronic toxicity of tebufenozide in two successive generations of Chironomus riparius using nominal concentrations that ranged from 4 to 26.2 μg/L. We started the test from the first instar larvae in the parental (P) generation, quantifying life cycle parameters (emergence, sex ratio, development rate, fecundity and fertility) until the emergence in the subsequent F1 generation. Results showed a reduction in reproduction and a significant decrease in male developmental rate of midges for all treatments, in the F1 generation compared with the P generation (paired t test; p < 0.001). Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant exposure × generation effect on male fraction with male fraction increasing (P generation) or decreasing (F1 generation) with increasing exposure. These effects on C. riparius underline the importance of conducting long-term studies with environmentally relevant concentrations to investigate population-level endpoints for endocrine disrupting chemicals.