Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 3340–3350 | Cite as

Exposure of juvenile Danio rerio to aged TiO2 nanomaterial from sunscreen

  • Manuela Fouqueray
  • Patrice Noury
  • Lysiane Dherret
  • Perrine Chaurand
  • Khedidja Abbaci
  • Jerome Labille
  • Jerome Rose
  • Jeanne GarricEmail author
Research Article


The toxicity of dietary exposure to artificially aged TiO2 nanomaterial (T-Lite™) used in sunscreen cream was studied on Danio rerio. Embryolarval assays were conducted to assess the effects of TiO2 residues of nanomaterial (RNM) on fish early life stages. Juvenile fishes were exposed by the trophic route in two experiments. During the first experiment, juvenile fishes were exposed to TiO2 RNM for 14 days by adding RNM to commercial fish food. The second one consisted in producing a trophic food chain. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, previously contaminated with TiO2 RNM in growth medium, was used to feed Daphnia magna neonates over a 48-h period. Daphnia were used next to feed juvenile fishes for 7 days. Accumulation of Ti, life traits (survival and growth) and biochemical parameters such as energy reserves, digestive (trypsin, esterase, cellulose and amylase) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) enzyme activity were measured at the end of exposures. As expected in the receiving aquatic system, TiO2 RNM at low concentrations caused a low impact on juvenile zebrafish. A slight impact on the early life stage of zebrafish with premature hatching was observed, and this effect appeared mainly indirect, due to possible embryo hypoxia. When juvenile fish are exposed to contaminated food, digestive enzyme activity indicated a negative effect of TiO2 RNM. Digestive physiology was altered after 14 days of exposure and seemed to be an indirect target of TiO2 RNM when provided by food.


Titanium dioxide Nanoparticle Danio rerio Early life stage Food contamination Sublethal effect Nanomaterial alteration 



The authors thank Linda Northrup for correcting manuscript and the French National Agency ANR CES AGING NANO & TROPH (ANR-08-CESA-001) for funding.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuela Fouqueray
    • 1
  • Patrice Noury
    • 1
  • Lysiane Dherret
    • 1
  • Perrine Chaurand
    • 2
    • 4
  • Khedidja Abbaci
    • 1
  • Jerome Labille
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jerome Rose
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jeanne Garric
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.IRSTEA Lyon, UR MALYVilleurbanne CedexFrance
  2. 2.Aix-Marseille University, CEREGEAix en Provence cedex 4France
  3. 3.CNRS, CEREGEAix en Provence cedex 4France
  4. 4.International Consortium for the Environmental Implication of Nanotechnology iCEINTParisFrance

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