Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 2937–2947 | Cite as

Potential risk assessment of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen, China

  • Jian Li
  • Zhiyong Y. HuangEmail author
  • Yue Hu
  • Hong Yang
Research Article

Abstract

Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr in 240 shellfish including oyster, short-necked clam, razor clam, and mud clam collected from six administrative regions in Xiamen of China were measured. The daily intakes of heavy metals through the consumption of shellfish were estimated based on both of the metal concentrations in shellfish and the consuming amounts of shellfish. In addition, the target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals in shellfish on human body. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in shellfish ranged at the following sequence: Cr > Cd > Pb > Hg. The concentrations of Hg and Pb in most samples were below the limits (0.3 mg kg−1 for Hg and 0.5 mg kg−1 for Pb) of national standard (GB 18406.4-2001) set in China. About 57 % of samples were found to contain more than 0.1 mg kg−1 of Cd, in which the highest level was found in oyster from Xiangan with a value of 1.21 mg kg−1. The average concentrations of Cd in oyster and mud clam samples were 0.338 and 0.369 mg kg−1, respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the samples of short-necked clam and razor clam. The highest concentration of Cr was found to present in short-necked clam from Jimei with a value of 10.4 mg kg−1, but a mean value of 1.95 mg kg−1 in all the shellfish was observed, and no significant difference was found among the different sampling regions. The calculated daily intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr through consuming the shellfish were 0.005, 0.122, 0.137, and 1.20 μg kg−1 day−1, respectively, which accounted for 2.19, 3.42, 13.7, and 40.1 % of the corresponding tolerable limits suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The THQ values of the four metals were far below 1 for most samples, except for those of Cd and Cr in the four shellfish species with the mean values of 0.132 and 0.385, respectively. The highest THQ values of Cd were observed in the species of oyster (0.719) and mud clam (0.568). But the high THQ values of Cr observed in all the four species were derived from the applied reference dose (RfD) data of Cr(VI) due to the unavailable RfD value of total Cr. The results indicate that the intakes of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen of China do not present an appreciable hazard risk on human health, but attention should be paid to consuming those with relatively high THQ values, such as oyster, mud clam, and short-necked clam.

Keywords

Heavy metal Shellfish Determination Estimated daily intake (EDI) Target hazard quotients (THQ) Risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 40771185), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (2012J01046), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Fujian Province, China (2012Y0052), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Xiamen, China (3502Z20113024), the Foundation of the Key Project Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (KLUEH201006), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Team of Jimei University (2010A007).

References

  1. Alyahya H, el-Gendy AH, Farraj SA, el-Hedeny M (2011) Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf using the clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, 1758. Water Air Soil Poll 214:499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiard JC, Amiard-Triquet C, Charbonnier L, Mesnil A, Raibow PS, Wang WX (2008) Bioaccessibility of essential and non-essential metals in commercial shellfish from Western Europe and Asia. Food Chem Toxicol 46(6):2010–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borak J, Hosgood HD (2007) Seafood arsenic: implications for human risk assessment. Regul Toxicol Pharm 47:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CEC (The Commission of the European Communities) (2006) Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. (EC) No. 1881/2006Google Scholar
  5. Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DSS (2008) Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotox Environ Safe 69:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chien LC, Hung TC, Choang KY, Yeh CY, Mneg PJ, Shieh MJ, Ha BC (2002) Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and As for fishermen in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 285:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark DC, Michael PB (2002) An exposure assessment for methylmercury from seafood for consumers in the United States. Risk Anal 22:689–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Mora S, Fowler SW, Wyse E, Azemard S (2004) Distribution of heavy metals in marine bivalves, fish and coastal sediments in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Mar Pollut Bull 49:410–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elinder CG (1982) Cadmium and health: a survey. Intern J Environ Stud 19:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Sikaily A, Khaled A, el-Nemr A (2004) Heavy metals monitoring using bivalves from Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. Environ Monit Assess 98:41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fang ZQ, Cheung RY, Wong MH (2001) Heavy metal concentrations in edible bivalves and gastropods available in major markets of the Pearl River Delta. J Environ Sci (China) 13:210–217Google Scholar
  12. FDA (2011) Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance, third ed. Center for food safety and applied nutrition. US Food and Drug AdministrationGoogle Scholar
  13. Franco J, Borja A, Solaun O, Pérez V (2002) Heavy metals in molluscs from the Basque Coast (Northern Spain): results from an 11-year monitoring programme. Mar Pollut Bull 44:973–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Han BC, Jeng WL, Chen RY, Fang GT, Hung TC, Tseng RJ (1998) Estimation of target hazard quotients and potential health risks for metals by consumption of seafood in Taiwan. Arch Environ Con Tox 35:711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Han BC, Jeng WL, Hung TC, Ling YC, Shieh MJ, Chien LC (2000) Estimation of metal and organochlorine pesticide exposures and potential health threat by consumption of oysters in Taiwan. Environ Pollut 109:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hough RL, Breward N, Young SD, Crout NM, Tye AM, Moir AM, Thornton L (2004) Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations. Environ Health Perspect 112:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang H, Wu JY, Wu JH (2007) Heavy metal monitoring using bivalved shellfish from Zhejiang Coastal waters, East China Sea. Environ Monit Assess 129:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang ZY, Qin DP, Zeng XC, Li J, Cao YL, Cai C (2012) Species distribution and potential bioavailability of exogenous Hg (II) in vegetable-growing soil investigated with a modified Tessier scheme coupled with isotopic labeling technique. Geoderma. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.05.018
  19. Ip CCM, Li XD, Zhang G, Wong CSC, Zhang WL (2005) Heavy metal and Pb isotopic compositions of aquatic organisms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Environ Pollut 138:494–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. JECFA (1999) Reports of the 53rd meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). JECFA/53/TRS. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  21. JECFA (2003) Summary and conclusions of the 61st meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). JECFA/61/SC. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  22. Jou LJ, Liao CM (2006) A dynamic artificial clam (Corbicula fluminea) allows parsimony on-line measurement of waterborne metals. Environ Pollut 144(1):172–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kobal AB, Horvat M, Prezelj M, Briški AS, Krsnik M, Dizdarevič T, Mazej D, Falnoga I, Stibilj V, Američ N, Kobal D, Osredkar J (2004) The impact of long-term past exposure to elemental mercury on antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation in mercury miners. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kojadinovic J, Potier M, Corre ML, Cosson RP, Bustamante P (2006) Mercury content in commercial pelagic fish and its risk assessment in the Western Indian Ocean. Sci Total Environ 366:688–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larsen EH, Berg T (2001) Trace element speciation and international food legislations—a codex alimentarius position paper on arsenic as a contaminant. In: Ebdon L, Crews H, Cornelis R, Donard OFX, Quevauviller P, Britain G (eds) Trace element speciation for environment, food and health. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li Y, Yu ZM, Song XX, Mu QL (2006) Trace metal concentrations in suspended particles, sediments and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from Jiaozhou Bay of China. Environ Monit Assess 121:491–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li Y, Feng ZH, Li GQ, Yan BL (2010) Potential risks of heavy metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) from seafood to health. Chin J Food Sci 31:390–393Google Scholar
  28. Maanan M (2008) Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region. Environ Pollut 153:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2009) China Yearbook-2009. Available from: http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2009/indexch.htm
  30. National Physique Monitoring Center of China (2012) Communique of national physical fitness monitoring. Available from: http://www.fitness.org.cn/w/791.html
  31. Reeves PG, Chaney RL (2008) Bioavailability as an issue in risk assessment and management of food cadmium: a review. Sci Total Environ 398:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saavedra Y, González A, Fernández P, Blanco J (2004) A simple optimized microwave digestion method for multielement monitoring in mussel samples. Spectrochim Acta B 59(4):533–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. SAC (Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China) (2001) Safety qualification for agricultural product—safety requirements for non-environmental pollution aquatic products (GB18406.4-2001). Chinese Standard Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  34. SAC (Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China) (2006) Non-environmental pollution food—limit of poisonous and harmful substances in aquatic products (NY 5073-2006). Chinese Standard Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakao S, Uchida H (1999) Determination of trace elements in shellfish tissue samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 382(1–2):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Song B, Lei M, Chen T, Zheng YM, Xie YF, Li XY, Gao D (2009) Assessing the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables to the general population in Beijing, China. J Environ Sci (China) 21:1702–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Storelli MM (2008) Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol 46:2782–2788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor D (1983) The significance of the accumulation of cadmium by aquatic organisms. Ecotox Environ Safe 7:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. The Department of Justice (2000) the Judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Food Adulteration (metallic contamination) RegulationsGoogle Scholar
  40. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (2009) Food Code. Available from: http://www.kfda.go.kr/eng/eng/-index.do?nMenuCode=43&searchKeyCode=122&page=1&mode=view&boardSeq=66020
  41. Türkmen M, Türkmen A, Tepe Y, Töre Y, Ates A (2009) Determination of metals in fish species from Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Food Chem 113:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tuzen M, Soylak M (2007) Determination of trace metals in canned fish marketed in Turkey. Food Chem 101:1378–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. US EPA (2000) Risk-based concentration table. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  44. US EPA (2011) Risk-based concentration table. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  45. Yap CK, Ahmad I, Tan SG (2004) Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) collected from some wild and aquacultural sites in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Food Chem 84:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yilmaz F, Özdemir N, Demirak A, Tuna AL (2007) Heavy metal levels in two fish species Leuciscus cephalus and Lepomis gibbosus. Food Chem 100:830–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu J, Huang ZY, Chen T, Qin DP, Zeng XC, Huang YF (2012) Evaluation of ecological risk and source of heavy metals in vegetable-growing soils in Fujian Province, China. Environ Earth Sci 65(1):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zheng N, Wang Q, Zhang X, Zheng D, Zhang Z, Zhang S (2007) Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao City, China. Sci Total Environ 387:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of BioengineeringJimei UniversityXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations