Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 1958–1965 | Cite as

Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes

  • João Paulo Machado Torres
  • Claudio Leite
  • Thomas Krauss
  • Roland Weber
11th Forum of the International HCH and Pesticide Association

Abstract

In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited.

Keywords

PCDD/PCDF Contaminated site Landfill mining EDC Chlor-alkali Citrus pulp pellets Rio Grande da Serra 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa (FAPERJ), and Coordenação de Apoio a Formação de Pessoal do Ministério da Educação (CAPES/MEC) for their ongoing support of the scientific activities of the Eduardo Penna Franca Radioisotopes Laboratory of the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Supplementary material

11356_2012_1073_MOESM1_ESM.xls (92 kb)
ESM 1 (XLS 91 kb)

References

  1. Behnisch P (2005) Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs—the show goes on in Europe Food, Spring 2005/1 (6):13-17Google Scholar
  2. Carroll WF Jr, Berger TC, Borelli FE, Garrity PJ, Jacobs RA, Ledvina J, Lewis JW, McCreedy RL, Smith TP, Tuhovak DR, Weston AF (2001) Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride monomer and polyvinyl chloride facilities in the United States, consolidated report. Chemosphere 43:689–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carvalhaes GK, Brooks P, Marques CG, Azevedo JAT, Machado MCS, Azevedo GC (2002a) Chlorinated components in lime used in production contaminated citrus pulp pellets from Brazil chemosphere; 46:1409-1411Google Scholar
  4. Carvalhaes GK, Brooks P, Marques CG, Azevedo JAT, Machado MCM, Azevedo CG (2002b) Lime as the source of PCDD/PCDF contamination in citrus pulp pellets from Brazil and status of the monitoring program. Chemosphere 46:1413–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. UK Environment Agency (1997) Information Report. Regulation of Dioxin releases from the Runcorn operations of ICI and EVC. Crown Copyright, Environment Agency Licence GD03177G0003, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. European Commission 1999, Mission report on a mission carried out in Brazil from 11 to 15 January 1999 concerning the organisation of official inspections in the field of animal nutrition: dioxin contamination of citrus pulp pelletsGoogle Scholar
  7. Fattore E, Benfenati E, Mariani G, Fanelli R (1997) Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments. from the Venice Lagoon. Italy Environ Sci Technol 31:1777–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fiedler H., Hutzinger O., Welsch-Pausch K., Schmiedinger A (2000) Evaluation of the occurrence of PCDD/PCDF and POPs in wastes and their potential to enter the food chain. Study on behalf of the European Commission, DG Environment http://ec.europa.eu/environment/dioxin/pdf/001_ubt_final.pdf (access 20.03.2012)
  9. Greenpeace International (2002) Corporate crimes. June 2002. http://archive.greenpeace.org/earthsummit/docs/corpcrimes_1of3.pdf (access 20.03.2012)
  10. Hagenmaier H, Kraft M, Brunner H, Haag R (1987) Catalytic effects of fly ash from waste incineration facilities on the formation and decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Environ Sci Technol 21:1080–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heinisch E, Kettrup A, Bergheim W, Wenzel S (2007) Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, source-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. 6. Strikingly high contaminated sites. Fresenius Environ Bull 16(10):1248–1273Google Scholar
  12. Isosaari P, Kohonen T, Kiviranta H, Tuomisto J, Vartiainen T (2000) Assessment of levels, distribution, and risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a vinyl chloride monomer production plant. Environ Sci Technol 34:2684–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kamphues J, Schulz AJ, Gude K, Bruns-Weller E, Severin K, Appuhn H, Taube V (2011) Investigations concerning the use of dioxin exposed grassland along rivers by food producing ruminants with special regard to food safety. Organohalogen Compd 73:2040–2041Google Scholar
  14. Kannan K, Imagawa T, Blankenship A, Giesy JP (1998) Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant. Environ Sci Technol 32:2507–2514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lahl U (2005) In die Pfanne gehauen – Die Altlasten aus der Hochzeit der Chlorchemie sind für die heutige Dioxinbelastung von Freilandeiern verantwortlich. Müllmagazin 1(2005):1–6Google Scholar
  16. Malisch R (2000) Increase of the PCDD/PCDF—contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp. Chemosphere 40:1041–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Otto W, Schönberger H, Burger D, Weber R (2006) Case study on remediation of a German city contaminated by a chloralkali plant and PCP production. Organohalogen Compd 68:880–885Google Scholar
  18. Rappe C, Kjeller L-O, Kulp SE, de Wit C (1991) Levels, profile and pattern of PCDDs and PCDFs in samples related to the production and use of chlorine. Chemosphere 23:1629–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schulz AJ, Wiesmüller T, Appuhn H, Stehr D, Severin K, Landmann D, Kamphues J (2005) Dioxin concentration in milk and tissues of cows and sheep related to feed and soil contamination. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 89(3–6):72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stephenson A, Labunska I, Stringer R (1998) Análise de sedimentos fluviais coletados a montante e a juzante da indústria química solvay-indupa, Rio Grande da Serra, São Paulo, Brasil 1998. Report for Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org.br/toxicos/pdf/solvay-indupa-1998.pdf (access 20.03.2012)
  21. Stockholm Convention (2005) Standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases. 2nd edn. UNEP Chemicals, Geneva, Switzerland, February 2005; http://www.pops.int/documents/guidance/
  22. Stockholm Convention (2012) Report of the persistent organic pollutants review committee on the work of its seventh meeting. Geneva, 10–14 October 2011, UNEP/POPS/POPRC.7/19Google Scholar
  23. Stringer R, Johnston P (2001) Chlorine and the environment—an overview on the chlorine industry. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht/Boston/LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Sundqvist KL, Tysklind M, Cato I, Bignert A, Wiberg K (2009) Levels and homologue profiles of PCDD/PCDFs in sediments along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:396–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. US EPA (1994) Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-like compounds, Vols 1-3. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development. EPA/6006-88/005. Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. Verta M, Kiviranta H, Salo S, Malve O, Korhonen M, Verkasalo PK, Ruokojärvi P, Rossi E, Hanski A, Päätalo K, Vartiainen T (2009) A decision framework for possible remediation of contaminated sediments in the River Kymijoki, Finland. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Weber R, Sakurai S, Hagenmaier H (1999) Formation and destruction of PCDD/PCDF during heat treatment of fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators. Chemosphere 38:2633–2642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Weber R, Nagai K, Nishino J, Shiraishi H, Ishida M, Takasuga T, Kondo K, Hiraoka M (2002) Effect of selected metal oxides on dechlorination and destruction of PCDD and PCDF. Chemosphere 46:1255–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weber R, Gaus C, Tysklind M, Johnston P, Forter M, Hollert H, Heinisch E, Holoubek I, Lloyd-Smith M, Masunaga S, Mocarelli P, Santillo D, Seike N, Symons R, Torres JPM, Verta M, Varbelow G, Vijgen J, Watson A, Costner P, Woelz P, Wycisk P, Zenneg M (2008a) Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges. Environ Sci Pollut Res 15:363–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weber R, Tysklind M, Gaus C (2008b) Dioxin—contemporary and future challenges of historical legacies. Environ Sci Pollut Res 15:96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weber R, Watson A, Forter M, Oliaei F (2011) Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges. Waste Manag Res 29(1):107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wiesmuller T (1990) Examinations of the catalytic dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran and application of the obtained mixtures in toxicological studies. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tubingen, Federal Republic of GermanyGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilken M, Martin G, Lamparski L, Denney P, Baker B (2006) Pattern recognition in floodplain samples. Organohalogen Compd 68:2371–2374Google Scholar
  34. Wölz J, Engwall M, Maletz S, Olsmann H, van Bavel B, Kammann U, Klempt M, Weber R, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2008) Changes in toxicity and dioxin-like activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 15:536–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. World Chlorine Council (2007) Sustainability commitments and actions. WCC Publications. 28 pp. http://www.worldchlorine.org/sustainability/sustain_07/wcc_report07.pdf
  36. Wu WZ, Schramm K-W, Xu Y, Ketrup A (2001) Mobility and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment of Ya-Er Lake, China. Water Res 35(12):3025–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu Y, Zhang Q, Wu W, Li W (2000) Patterns and levels of PCDD/PCDF in a Chinese graphite electrode sludge. Chin Sci Bull 45(16):1471–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamamoto T, Higashino K, Ohura T, Amagai T, Takemori H, Takasuga T, Sasaki Y (2009) Laboratory investigation of PCD/Fs and dioxin-like compounds formation during chlor-alkali 71:880-885Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Paulo Machado Torres
    • 1
  • Claudio Leite
    • 2
  • Thomas Krauss
    • 3
  • Roland Weber
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de BiofísicaRio de Janeiro Federal UniversityRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Pesquisas TecnológicasSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Oswaldo Cruz FoundationNational School of Public HealthRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.POPs Environmental ConsultingGöppingenGermany

Personalised recommendations