Background, aim, and scope
Primitive wax refining techniques had resulted in almost 50,000 tonnes of acidic oily sludge (pH 1–3) being accumulated inside the Digboi refinery premises in Assam state, northeast India. A novel yeast species Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 was obtained that could degrade the acidic petroleum hydrocarbons at pH 3 under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation potential of this strain under laboratory and field conditions.
Materials and methods
The ability of TERI ASN6 to degrade the hydrocarbons found in the acidic oily sludge was established by gravimetry and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. Following this, a feasibility study was done, on site, to study various treatments for the remediation of the acidic sludge. Among the treatments, the application of C. digboiensis TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed the highest degradation of the acidic oily sludge. This treatment was then selected for the full-scale bioremediation study conducted on site, inside the refinery premises.
The novel yeast strain TERI ASN6 could degrade 40 mg of eicosane in 50 ml of minimal salts medium in 10 days and 72% of heneicosane in 192 h at pH 3. The degradation of alkanes yielded monocarboxylic acid intermediates while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene found in the acidic oily sludge yielded the oxygenated intermediate pyrenol. In the feasibility study, the application of TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed a reduction of solvent extractable total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 160 to 28.81 g kg−1 soil as compared to a TPH reduction from 183.85 to 151.10 g kg−1 soil in the untreated control in 135 days. The full-scale bioremediation study in a 3,280-m2 area in the refinery showed a reduction of TPH from 184.06 to 7.96 g kg−1 soil in 175 days.
Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes is a well-known phenomenon, but most microbes are unable to withstand the low pH conditions found in Digboi refinery. The strain C. digboiensis could efficiently degrade the acidic oily sludge on site because of its robust nature, probably acquired by prolonged exposure to the contaminants.
This study establishes the potential of novel yeast strain to bioremediate hydrocarbons at low pH under field conditions.
Recommendations and perspectives
Acidic oily sludge is a potential environmental hazard. The components of the oily sludge are toxic and carcinogenic, and the acidity of the sludge further increases this problem. These results establish that the novel yeast strain C. digboiensis was able to degrade hydrocarbons at low pH and can therefore be used for bioremediating soils that have been contaminated by acidic hydrocarbon wastes generated by other methods as well.
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We are thankful to Dr. R. K. Pachauri, Director General, TERI for providing the infrastructure to carry out the present study and the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for the financial support to carry out this study. We are grateful to the staff of Assam Oil Division for their help during fieldwork. The authors are grateful to Dr. D. K Tuli and Dr. M. P. Singh of IOCL R&D center for their support. The authors are in gratitude for the help provided by Vikas, Dileep, Akhil, Srivalli, and Neha for their kind help. The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Abu Swaleh, Vinod, and Rambaran.
Responsible editor: Hailong Wang
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Sood, N., Patle, S. & Lal, B. Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge-contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17, 603–610 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0239-9
- Acidic oily sludge
- Candida digboiensis
- Contaminated soil
- Total petroleum hydrocarbon