Differences in larval dynamics of golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei between dam reservoirs with and without an aeration system

  • Daisuke NakanoEmail author
  • Takuya Kobayashi
  • Isamu Sakaguchi
Original Paper


The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is a freshwater bivalve that adheres to water intake facilities, leading to problems of several kinds. Biofouling problems have been increasing recently in East Asia and South America, and the planktonic stage of this species is considered to play an important role in its dispersal. We investigated the larval dynamics of L. fortunei in two reservoirs, Lake Ohshio and Lake Takenuma, which are connected by a headrace channel. An aeration system for water quality conservation was present in the former reservoir but not in the latter. Larval density in Lake Ohshio was more than 10,000 individuals/m3 with a maximum of 80,000 individuals/m3 in summer. The density in Lake Takenuma was much lower, with a maximum of around 200 individuals/m3. Water temperature (WT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were almost uniform regardless of water depth in Lake Ohshio because of destratification due to continuous aeration. Summer WT and DO in the lake were considered to be suitable for survival and reproduction of L. fortunei. On the other hand, stratification was found for WT and DO in Lake Takenuma throughout the summer. The low WT and DO found in the deep areas of the lake in summer were considered to be not suitable for survival and reproduction of this species. Thus, the population of L. fortunei larvae differed widely even in two adjoining lakes, and WT and DO are considered to be critical factors, especially for reproduction.


Invasive species Biofouling Water temperature Dissolved oxygen Artificial destratification Water level fluctuation 



D.N. thanks Dr. Yasuyuki Nogata and Dr. Noriyuki Endo for helpful advice with regard to this paper. We thank Hiroshi Matsumoto, Hideo Kanai, Masahiro Nomura, Yumi Nagao, members of the group for green management of Lake Ohshio, and Tatsuhisa Horikoshi and his family for help with the investigations. We also thank Tomioka City and Fujioka City for providing us with the use of their facilities.


  1. Antenucci JP, Ghadouani A, Burford MA, Romero JR (2005) The long-term effect of artificial destratification on phytoplankton species composition in a subtropical reservoir. Freshw Biol 50:1081–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boltovskoy D, Correa N, Cataldo D, Sylvester F (2006) Dispersion and ecological impact of the invasive freshwater bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the Rio de la Plata watershed and beyond. Biol Invasions 8:947–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borcherding J, De Ruyter Van Steveninck ED (1992) Abundance and growth of Dreissena polymorpha larvae in the water column of the River Rhine during downstream transportation. In: Neumann D, Jenner HA (eds) The Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorph. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 29–44Google Scholar
  4. Brönmark C, Hansson LA (2005) The biology of lakes and ponds, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Burford MA, O’Donohue MJ (2006) A comparison of phytoplankton community assemblages in artificially and natural mixed subtropical water reservoirs. Freshw Biol 51:973–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cataldo D, Boltovskoy D (2000) Yearly reproductive activity of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia) as inferred from the occurrence of its larva in the plankton of the lower Parana River and the Rio de la Plata estuary (Argentina). Aquat Ecol 34:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowell BC, Dawes CJ, Gardiner WE, Scheda SM (1987) The influence of whole lake aeration on the limnology of a hypereutrophic lake in central Florida. Hydrobiologia 148:3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darrigran G (2002) Potential impact of filter-feeding invaders on temperate inland freshwater environments. Biol Invasions 4:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darrigran G, Maronas ME, Colautti DC (2004) Air exposure as a control mechanism for the Golden Mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). J Fresh Ecol 19:461–464Google Scholar
  10. Darrigran G, Damborenea C, Greco N (2007) An evaluation pattern for antimacrofouling procedures: Limnoperna fortunei larvae study in a hydroelectric power plant in South America. Ambio 36:575–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraleigh PC, Klerks PL, Gubanich G, Matisoff G, Stevenson RC (1993) Abundance and settling of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in Western and Central Lake Erie. In: Nalepa TF, Schloesser DW (eds) Zebra Mussels, biology, impacts and control. Lewis, London, pp 129–142Google Scholar
  12. Heo WM, Kim B (2004) The effect of artificial destratification on phytoplankton in a reservoir. Hydrobiologia 524:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Horvath TG, Lamberti GA, Lodge DM, Perry WL (1996) Zebra mussel dispersal in lake-stream systems: source-sink dynamics? J North Am Benthol Soc 15:564–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Iwasaki K (1997) Climbing behavior and tolerance to aerial exposure of a freshwater mussel, Limnoperna fortunei. Venus 56:15–25Google Scholar
  15. Karatayev AY, Padilla DK, Minchin D, Boltovskoy D, Burlakova LE (2007) Changes in global economics and trade: the potential spread of exotic freshwater bivalves. Biol Invasions 9:161–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Katayama M, Shimizu R, Matsumoto H (2005) The first record of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) in Gunma. Field Biol 14:35–40 (in Japanease)Google Scholar
  17. Mackie GL, Gibbons WN, Muncaster BW, Gray IM (1989) The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: a synthesis of European experiences and a preview for North America: report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources Branch. Great Lakes Section, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  18. Magara Y, Matsui Y, Goto Y, Yuasa A (2001) Invasion of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan. J Water Supply 50:113–124Google Scholar
  19. Matsui Y, Nagaya K, Yuasa A, Naruto H, Yamamoto H, Ohkawa K, Magara Y (2001) Attachment strength of Limnoperna fortunei on substrates, and their surface properties. Biofouling 17:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McClintock NL, Wilhm J (1977) Effects of artificial destratification on zooplankton of two Oklahoma reservoirs. Hydrobiologia 54:233–239Google Scholar
  21. Montalto L, Drago IE (2003) Tolerance to desiccation of an invasive mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae), under experimental conditions. Hydrobiologia 498:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morton B (1977) The population dynamics of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilacea) in Plover Cove reservoir, Hong Kong. Malacologia 16:165–182Google Scholar
  23. Nagaya K, Matsui Y, Ohira H, Yuasa A, Yamamoto H, Ohkawa K, Magara Y (2001) Attachment strength of an adhesive nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, against water flow. Biofouling 17:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Newell RIE, Hilbish TJ, Koehn RK, Newell CJ (1982) Temporal variation in the reproductive cycle of Mytilus edulis L (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) from locations on the east coast of the United States. Biol Bull 162:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Newell CR, Hidu H, McAlice BJ, Podniesinski G, Short F, Kindblom L (1991) Recruitment and commercial seed procurement of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis in Maine. J World Aquacult Soc 22:134–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nishimura T, Habe T (1987) Contamination of Chinese freshwater bivalves in imported freshwater clams. Chiribotan (News reports of the Malacological Society of Japan) 18:110–111 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Paolucci EM, Cataldo DH, Fuentes CM, Boltovskoy D (2007) Larvae of the invasive species Limnoperna fortunei (bivalve) in the diet of fish larvae in the Parana River, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 589:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ricciardi A (1998) Global range expansion of the Asian mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae): another fouling threat to freshwater systems. Biofouling 13:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Riessen HP, Ferro TA, Kamman RA (1993) Distribution of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in Eastern Lake Erie. In: Nalepa TF, Schloesser DW (eds) Zebra Mussels, biology, impacts and control. Lewis, London, pp 143–152Google Scholar
  30. Sherman B, Whittington J, Oliver R (2000) The impact of artificial destratification on water quality in Chaffey Reservoir. Arch Hydrobiol 55:15–29Google Scholar
  31. Stich HB, Lampert W (1981) Predation evasion as an explanation of diurnal vertical migration by zooplankton. Nature 293:396–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stoeckel JA, Rehmann DW, Schneider DW, Padilla DK (2004) Retention and supply of zebra mussel larvae in a large river system: importance of an upstream lake. Freshw Biol 49:919–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sylvester F, Boltovskoy D, Cataldo D (2007) Fast response of freshwater consumers to a new trophic resource: predation on the recently introduced Asian bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the lower Parana river, South America. Austral Ecol 32:403–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology, 3rd edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  35. Wielgosz S (1983) Effects of artificial destratification on zoobenthos and on the trophic status of a Polish reservoir. Hydrobiologia 102:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daisuke Nakano
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takuya Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Isamu Sakaguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Environmental Sector, Environmental Science Research LaboratoryCentral Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)ChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations