Skip to main content

A Simple Dual-Beam Time-Multiplexed Photon Doppler Velocimeter for Pressure-Shear Plate Impact Experiments

Abstract

Pressure-shear plate impact experiments generate normal and transverse particle velocities during high strain rate deformations. Traditionally, freespace lenscoupled tabletop laser interferometry techniques are used together with diffraction gratings to interrogate the evolving velocity vector at the back face of the target plate. Recently, fiberoptic velocimetry (photon Doppler velocimetry or PDV) has become commonplace for measuring normal particle velocities above 200m/sec. In this work, we demonstrate transverse velocity detection using a modified PDV system where we subtract the measured normal velocity history from a concurrent velocity history measured at a canted angle to the target surface to obtain the transverse velocity component. This modified system is time-multiplexed to reduce the number of components, and uses an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to boost the angled signal intensity while maintaining low noise. The system operates as a heterodyne interferometer, but features a frequency upshifted reference leg to improve data analysis at the particle velocities expected in the experiment. We demonstrate by direct comparison that this inexpensive and simple approach is as effective as traditional grating methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Klopp R, Clifton R, Shawki T (1985) Pressure-shear impact and the dynamic viscoplastic response of metals. Mech Mater 4(3):375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Clifton R (1970) Analysis of the laser velocity interferometer. J Appl Phys 41(13):5335. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1658673

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Kim K, Clifton R, Kumar P (1977) A combined normal and transverse-displacement interferometer with an application to impact of y-cut quartz. J Appl Phys 48(4132):4132. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.323448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Espinosa H, Mello M, Xu Y (1996) A desensitized displacement interferometer applied to impact recovery experiments. Appl Phys Lett 69(21):3161. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.116815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Vogler T, Alexander S, Thornhill T, Reinhart W (2011) Sandia Technical Report SAND2011–6700, pp 1–52

  6. Chhabildas L, Sutherland H, Asay J (1979) A velocity interferometer technique to determine shear-wave particle velocity in shock-loaded solids. J Appl Phys 50(8):5196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Meyers M (2007) Dynamic behavior of materials. Wiley

  8. Strand O, Goosman D, Martinez C, Whitworth T, Kuhlow W (2006) Compact system for high-speed velocimetry using heterodyne techniques. Rev Sci Instr 77(08318):1

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dolan D (2010) Accuracy and precision in photonic doppler velocimetry. Rev Sci Instr 81 (053905):053905–1–053905-7

    Google Scholar 

  10. Holtkamp DB (2006) Survey of optical velocimetry experiments - applications of PDV, a heterodyne velocimeter. In: 2006 IEEE international conference on megagauss magnetic field generation and related topics. Herlany, pp 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1109/MEGAGUSS.2006.4530668

  11. Ao T, Dolan D (2010) Sandia Technical Report SAND2010–3628, pp 1–64

  12. Zuanetti B, Wang T, Prakash V (2017) A compact fiber optics-based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer. Rev Sci Instrum 88(033108):1. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4978340

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kettenbeil C, Mello M, Bischann M, Ravichandran G (2018) Heterodyne transverse velocimetry for pressure-shear plate impact experiments. J Appl Phys 123(125902):125902–1–125902-14

    Google Scholar 

  14. Young J, Preston J, Driel H, Sipe J (1983) Laser induced periodic surface structure. Phys Rev B 27 (2):1141–1154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Luo J, Bai J, He P, Ying K (2004) IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Frequency Control 51 (9):1119–11127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cabral A, Rebordao J (2007) Accuracy of frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute distance metrology. Opt Eng 46(7):073602

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mahafza BR (2013) Radar systems analysis and design using MATLAB. Chapman & Hall

  18. Casem D, Grunschel S, Schuster B (2012) Normal and transverse displacement interferometers applied to small diameter Kolsky bars. Exp Mech 52(2):173

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the Borg group at Marquette University for their input into this work. We also thank Christian Kettenbeil at California Institute of Technology for his input. Finally, we thank the Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute for their support, specifically Steve Lavenstein, David Eastman and Dr. Ravi Shivaraman. This research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement Number W911NF-12-2-0022. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K.T. Ramesh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mallick, D., Zhao, M., Bosworth, B. et al. A Simple Dual-Beam Time-Multiplexed Photon Doppler Velocimeter for Pressure-Shear Plate Impact Experiments. Exp Mech 59, 41–49 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-018-0435-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-018-0435-y

Keywords

  • PDV
  • Photon doppler velocimetry
  • Interferometry
  • Velocimetry
  • Pressure-shear plate impact