Skip to main content

Influence of Water Uptake on Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

Abstract

A study was completed to assess the effects of various humidity levels and amount of sorbed water on the fracture behavior of notched poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) samples subjected to stress pulses generated by the impact of a projectile launched from an air gun. Impact experiments were performed on six sets of samples conditioned in different environments: dry samples; samples exposed to three different relative humidity environments (11 %, 60 %, and 98 %) using saturated salt solutions (Lithium Chloride, Sodium Bromide, and Potassium Sulfate, respectively); and distilled water- and seawater-exposed samples. Experiments varied by immersion time and water content, while loading conditions were kept constant. The main goal of this study was to understand the effects of sorbed water on the fracture behavior of PMMA when subjected to high strain rate impacts. It was observed that when PMMA is subjected to strain rates of 102 s −1, the effect of water content is not a dominant mechanism on the crack initiation and crack-tip speed of PMMA.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. Zukas JA (1982) Impact dynamics. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  2. Asay JR, Shahinpoor M (1993) High-pressure shock compression of solids. Springer-Verlag, New York

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. Ishiyama C, Sakuma T, Shimojo M , Higo Y (2002) Effects of humidity on environmental stress cracking behavior in poly(methyl methacrylate). J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 40:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ishiyama C, Higo Y (2002) Effects of humidity on Young’s modulus in poly(methyl methacrylate). J Polym Sci Part B: 40:460–465

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hamouda AMS (2002) The influence of humidity on the deformation and fracture behaviour of PMMA. J Mater Process Technol 124:238–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Shen J, Chen CC, Sauer JA (1985) Effects of sorbed water on properties of low and high molecular weight PMMA: 1. Deformation and fracture behaviour. Polymer 26:511–518

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Josserand L, Schirrer R , Davies P (1995) Influence of water on crack propagation in poly methyl methacrylate: craze stress and craze fibril lifetime. J Mater Sci 30:1772–1780

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Arnold JC (1998) The effects of diffusion on environmental stress crack initiation in PMMA. J Mater Sci 33 (21):5193–5204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bokoi Y, Ishiyama C, Shimojo M, Shiraishi Y, Higo Y (2000) Effects of sorbed water on crack propagation in poly(methyl methacrylate) under static tensile stress. J Mater Sci 35:5001–5011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chen CC, Shen J, Sauer JA (1985) Effects of sorbed water on properties of low and high molecular weight PMMA: 11. Fatigue performance. Polymer 26(1):89–96

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Burchill PJ (1989) Effect of absorbed water, temperature and strain rate on the yield strength of two methylmethacrylate-based plastics. J Mater Sci 24:1936–1940

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Krevelen DWv, Nijenhuis Kt (2009) Properties of polymers: their correlation with chemical structure; their numerical estimation and prediction from additive group contributions. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Book  Google Scholar 

  13. Lakes RS (1999) Viscoelastic solids. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  14. Williams JG (1987) Fracture mechanics of polymers. Halsted Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  15. Andrews EH (1979) Developments in polymer fracture. Applied Science Publishers, London

    Google Scholar 

  16. Shukla A (2005) Practical fracture mechanics in design. Marcel Dekker, New York

    Google Scholar 

  17. Theocaris PS, Katsamanis P (1978) Response of cracks to impact by caustics. Eng Fract Mech 10:197–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Greenspan L (1977) Humidity fixed points of binary saturated aqueous solutions. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards - A. Physics and Chemistry, 81A

  19. Wang C, Eliasson V (2012) Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures. Int J Multiphys 6:267–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Delpino Gonzales O, Eliasson V (2015) Effect of water content on dynamic fracture initiation of vinyl ester. Exp Mech 1–8. doi:10.1007/s11340-015-0028-y

  21. Beinert J, Kalthoff JF Experimental determination of dynamic stress intensity factors by shadow patterns. In: Mechanics of Fracture, Volume 7: Experimental Evaluation of Etress Concentration and Intensity Factors. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hauge, 1981

  22. Konsta-Gdoutos M, Gdoutos EE (1992) Some remarks on caustics in mode I stress intensity factor evaluation. Theor Appl Fract Mech 17(1):47–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cheng L, Rosakis AJ, Freund LB (1993) The interpretation of optical caustics in the presence of dynamic non-uniform crack-tip motion histories: A study based on a higher order transient crack-tip expansion. Int J Solids Struct 30(7): 875–897

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N000141310607 (Dr. Y.D.S. Rajapakse, Program Manager) and the National Science Foundation through Grant Number CMMI-1332840. The authors wish to thank Frank Kosel, Specialised Imaging Inc., for providing a Kirana high-speed camera for these experiments.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Eliasson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Delpino Gonzales, O., Eliasson, V. Influence of Water Uptake on Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate). Exp Mech 56, 59–68 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-015-0030-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-015-0030-4

Keywords

  • PMMA
  • Dynamic loading
  • Caustics
  • Humidity
  • Crack propagation