Fracture Behavior of Prestressed Composites Subjected to Shock Loading: A DIC-Based Study

Abstract

The dynamic fracture behavior of a prestressed orthogonally woven glass fiber-reinforced composite material was experimentally investigated. A shock tube apparatus was used in conjunction with a tensile pre-loading device to apply nominally Mode-I dynamic loading to pre-tensioned, single edge notched specimens. The specimen response was observed with a stereo high speed camera arrangement, and the full-field displacement and strain distributions near the crack tip were extracted using the 3D digital image correlation technique. Critical stress intensity factors for each specimen were determined from the displacement and strain fields using an over-deterministic approach. The magnitude of the pre-load applied to the specimens was shown to influence the crack tip velocity as well as the dynamic stress intensity factor up to the onset of crack propagation. The effect of fiber orientation on both crack tip velocity and dynamic stress intensity factor was also observed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

References

  1. 1.

    Lambros J, Rosakis AJ (1997) Dynamic crack initiation and growth in thick unidirectional graphite/epoxy plates. Compos Sci Technol 57:55–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Compston P, Jar PYB, Davies P (1998) Matrix effect on the static and dynamic interlaminar fracture toughness of glass-fiber marine composites. Compos Part B-Eng 29B:505–516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lee D, Tippur H, Kirugulige M (2009) Experimental study of dynamic crack growth in unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites using digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. J Compos Mater 43:2081–2108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sun CT, Han C (2004) A method for testing interlaminar dynamic fracture toughness of polymeric composites. Compos Part B-Eng 35B:647–655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Naik NK, Asmelash A, Kavala VR, Veerraju C (2007) Interlaminar shear properties of polymer matrix composites: strain rate effect. Mech Mater 39:1043–1052

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Lee D, Tippur H, Bogert P (2010) Quasi-static and dynamic fracture of graphite/epoxy composites: an optical study of loading-rate effects. Compos Part B-Eng 41B:462–474

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Shivakumar Gouda PS, Kudar SK, Prabhuswamy S, Jawali D (2011) Fracture toughness of glass-carbon (0/90)s fiber reinforced polymer composite – an experimental and numerical study. J Min Mater Char Eng 10:671–682

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kidane A, Shukla A (2010) Quasi-static and dynamic fracture initiation toughness of Ti/TiB layered functionally graded material under thermo-mechanical loading. Eng Fract Mech 77:479–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kidane A (2013) On the failure and fracture of polymer foam containing discontinuities. ISRN Mater Sci, vol. 2013, Article ID 408596, 9 pages, doi:10.1155/2013/408596

  10. 10.

    Dyer SR, Lassila LVJ, Jokinen M, Vallittu PK (2004) Effect of fiber position and orientation on fracture load of fiber-reinforced composite. Dent Mater 20:947–955

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Koohbor B, Mallon S, Kidane A (2014) Sutton MA (2014) A DIC-based study of in-plane mechanical response and fracture of orthotropic carbon fiber reinforced composite. Compos Part B 66:388–399

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shukla A, Agarwal BD, Bhushan B (1989) Determination of stress intensity factor in orthotropic composite materials using strain gages. Eng Fract Mech 32:469–477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Khanna SK, Shukla A (1995) On the use of strain gages in dynamic fracture mechanics. Eng Fract Mech 51:933–948

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Khanna SK, Shukla A (1994) Development of stress field equations and determination of stress intensity factor during dynamic fracture of orthotropic composite materials. Eng Fract Mech 47:345–359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kokaly MT, Lee J, Kobayashi AS (2003) Moire interferometry for dynamic fracture study. Opt Lasers Eng 40:231–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Sutton MA, Mingqi C, Peters WH, Chao YJ, McNeill SR (1986) Application of an optimized digital correlation method to planar deformation analysis. Image Vision Comput 4:143–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    McNeil SR, Peters WH, Sutton MA (1987) Estimation of stress intensity factor by digital image correlation. Eng Fract Mech 28:101–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chu TC, Ranson WF, Sutton MA, Peters WH (1985) Application of digital image correlation technique to experimental mechanics. Exp Mech 25:232–245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Luo PF, Chao YJ, Sutton MA, Peters WH (1993) Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision. Exp Mech 33:123–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Helm JD, McNeill SR, Sutton MA (1996) Improved three-dimensional image correlation for surface displacement measurement. Opt Eng 35:1911–1920

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sutton MA, Cheng CS, Zavattieri P, Yan J, Deng X (2006) Three-dimensional digital image correlation to quantify deformation and crack-opening displacement in ductile aluminum under mixed-mode I/III loading. Opt Eng 46:1–17

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Pollock P, Yu L, Sutton MA, Guo S, Majumdar P, Gresil M (2012) Full field measurements for determining orthotropic elastic parameters of woven glass-epoxy composites using off-axis tensile specimens. Exp Tech. doi:10.1111/j.1747-1567.2012.00824.x

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Fernandez-Canteli A, Arguelles A, Vina J, Ramulu M, Kobayashi AS (2002) Dynamic fracture toughness measurements in composites by instrumented charpy testing: influence of aging. Compos Sci Technol 62:1315–1325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wosu SN, Hui D, Dutta PK (2005) Dynamic mixed-mode I/II delamination fracture and energy release rate of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. Eng Fract Mech 72:1531–1558

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Heimbs S, Heller S, Middendorf P, Hahnel F, Weisse J (2009) Low velocity impact on CRFP plates with compressive preload: test and modeling. Int J Impact Eng 36:1182–1193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    http://www.norplex-micarta.com.

  27. 27.

    LeBlanc J, Shukla A, Rousseau C, Bogdanovich A (2007) Shock loading of three dimensional woven composite materials. Compos Struct 79:344–355

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    http://www.correlatedsolutions.com.

  29. 29.

    Barker DB, Sanford RJ, Chona R (1985) Determining K and related stress-field parameters from displacement fields. Exp Mech 25:399–407

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Yoneyama S, Morimoto Y, Takashi M (2006) Automatic evaluation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors utilizing digital image correlation. Strain 42:21–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Yates JR, Zanganeh M, Tai YH (2010) Quantifying crack tip displacement fields with DIC. Eng Fract Mech 77:2063–2076

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Berger JR, Dally JW (1988) An overdeterministic approach for measuring KI using strain gages. Exp Mech 28:142–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Kim K, Ye L (2004) Effects of thickness and environmental temperature on fracture behavior of polyetherimide (PEI). J Mater Sci 39:1267–1276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Anderson TL (2005) Fracture mechanics – Fundamentals and applications, 3rd edn. Taylor & Francis, Florida, pp 360–369

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Yanase K, Ju JW (2013) Toughening behavior of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites containing a crack-like flaw: matrix crack without fiber break. Int J Damage Mech 22:336–355

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The financial support of NASA through EPSCOR under Grant No.21-NE-USC_Kidane-RGP, the College of Engineering and Computing and the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of South Carolina is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Kidane.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mallon, S., Koohbor, B., Kidane, A. et al. Fracture Behavior of Prestressed Composites Subjected to Shock Loading: A DIC-Based Study. Exp Mech 55, 211–225 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-014-9936-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Woven composites
  • Digital image correlation
  • Dynamic fracture
  • Shock tube
  • Asymptotic analysis