Advertisement

Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 633–640 | Cite as

X-ray Diffraction Technique with Imaging Plate for Detecting Surface Distribution of Residual Stress in Diaphysis of Bovine Femurs

  • Satoshi Yamada
  • Shigeru TadanoEmail author
  • Mai Onuma
Article

Abstract

Stress measurements of bone are essential for evaluating the risk of bone fracture, the cure of bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis), and the bone adaptation. Previously, a method using X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to assess the presence of residual stress in the diaphysis of bovine and rabbit extremities. However, the previous method required a complicated experimental setup, long irradiation time, and limitations of the sample size. To profoundly enhance the understanding of distribution and biomechanical implications of bone residual stresses, it is necessary to develop an alternative method that features a simple setup without limitations on the sample size and shape. An imaging plate (IP) can obtain the two-dimensional distribution of hydroxyapatite crystal deformation and has the potential to resolve the previously mentioned issues. The aim of this study was to develop a measurement system using an XRD technique with an IP for obtaining the surface distribution of residual stress in the diaphysis of extremities. A mid-diaphysis specimen taken from an adult bovine femur was irradiated with characteristic Mo-Kα X-rays under no external forces and the diffracted X-rays were detected by an IP in the reflection side. The residual stress in the bone axis was calculated from the XRD pattern. As a result, tensile residual stresses were detected at the diaphyseal surface, corresponding to the results of the previous method. The developed system reduced the irradiation time by two thirds and the limitations of the sample size were removed.

Keywords

Biomechanics Bone X-ray Diffraction Imaging Plate Residual Stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), MEXT (No. 24240068).

References

  1. 1.
    Al Nazer R, Lanovaz J, Kawalilak C, Johnston JD, Kontulainen S (2012) Direct in vivo strain measurements in human bone - A systematic literature review. J Biomech 45:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tadano S, Giri B (2011) X-ray diffraction as a promising tool to characterize bone nanocomposites. Sci Technol Adv Mater 12:064708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Almer JD, Stock SR (2005) Internal strains and stresses measured in cortical bone via high-energy X-ray diffraction. J Struct Biol 152:14–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fujisaki K, Tadano S, Sasaki N (2006) A method on strain measurement of HAP in cortical bone from diffusive profile of X-ray diffraction. J Biomech 39:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta HS, Seto J, Wagermaier W, Zaslansky P, Boesecke P, Fratzl P (2006) Cooperative deformation of mineral and collagen in bone at the nanoscale. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17741–17746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fujisaki K, Tadano S (2007) Relationship between bone tissue strain and lattice strain of HAp crystals in bovine cortical bone under tensile loading. J Biomech 40:1832–1838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Almer JD, Stock SR (2007) Micromechanical response of mineral and collagen phases in bone. J Struct Biol 157:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tadano S, Giri B, Sato T, Fujisaki K, Todoh M (2008) Estimating nanoscale deformation in bone by X-ray diffraction imaging method. J Biomech 41:945–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stock SR, Yuan F, Brinson LC, Almer JD (2011) Internal strain gradients quantified in bone under load using high-energy X-ray scattering. J Biomech 44:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dong XN, Almer JD, Wang X (2011) Post-yield nanomechanics of human cortical bone in compression using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. J Biomech 44:676–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akhtar R, Daymond MR, Almer JD, Mummery PM (2011) Lattice strains and load partitioning in bovine trabecular bone. Acta Biomater 7:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giri B, Almer JD, Dong XN, Wang X (2012) In situ mechanical behavior of mineral crystals in human cortical bone under compressive load using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 14:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamada S, Tadano S, Fujisaki K, Kodaki Y (2013) Influence of osteon area fraction and degree of orientation of HAp crystals on mechanical properties in bovine femur. J Biomech 46:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deymier-Black AC, Almer JD, Stock SR, Haeffner DR, Dunand DC (2010) Synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of load partitioning during elastic deformation of bovine dentin. Acta Biomater 6:2172–2180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Almer JD, Stock SR (2010) High energy X-ray scattering quantification of in situ-loading-related strain gradients spanning the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in bovine tooth specimens. J Biomech 43:2294–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fujisaki K, Todoh M, Niida A, Shibuya R, Kitami S, Tadano S (2012) Orientation and deformation of mineral crystals in tooth surfaces. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 10:176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tadano S, Okoshi T (2006) Residual stress in bone structure and tissue of rabbit’s tibiofibula. Biomed Mater Eng 16:11–21Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giri B, Tadano S, Fujisaki K, Todoh M (2008) Understanding site-specific residual strain and architecture in bovine cortical bone. J Biomech 41:3107–3115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamada S, Tadano S (2010) Residual stress around the cortical surface in bovine femoral diaphysis. J Biomech Eng 132:044503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yamada S, Tadano S, Fujisaki K (2011) Residual stress distribution in rabbit limb bones. J Biomech 44:1285–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamada S, Tadano S, Todoh M, Fujisaki K (2011) Residual stress distribution in the bovine femoral diaphysis measured by synchrotron. J Biomech Sci Eng 6:114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yamada S, Tadano S (2013) Effects of growth on residual stress distribution along the radial depth of cortical cylinders from bovine femurs. J Biomech 46:2130–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fung YC (1990) Biomechanics: Motion, flow, stress, and growth. Springer, USACrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mason MW, Skedros JG, Bloebaum RD (1995) Evidence of strain-mode-related cortical adaptation in the diaphysis of the horse radius. Bone 17:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skedros JG, Mendenhall SD, Kiser CJ, Winet H (2009) Interpreting cortical bone adaptation and load history by quantifying osteon morphotypes in circularly polarized light images. Bone 44:392–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singhal A, Deymier-Black AC, Almer JD, Dunand DC (2011) Effect of high-energy X-ray doses on bone elastic properties and residual strains. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 4:1774–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rho JY, Zioupos P, Currey JD, Pharr GM (2002) Microstructural elasticity and regional heterogeneity in human femoral bone of various ages examined by nano-indentation. J Biomech 35:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gibson VA, Stover SM, Gibeling JC, Hazelwood SJ, Martin RB (2006) Osteonal effects on elastic modulus and fatigue life in equine bone. J Biomech 39:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fujisaki K, Tadano S (2010) Strain measurement of pure titanium covered with soft tissue using X-ray diffraction. J Biomech Eng 132:031004CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Human Mechanical Systems and Design, Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Human Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations