, Volume 83, Issue 1, pp 132–155 | Cite as

Score-Based Tests of Differential Item Functioning via Pairwise Maximum Likelihood Estimation

  • Ting WangEmail author
  • Carolin Strobl
  • Achim Zeileis
  • Edgar C. Merkle


Measurement invariance is a fundamental assumption in item response theory models, where the relationship between a latent construct (ability) and observed item responses is of interest. Violation of this assumption would render the scale misinterpreted or cause systematic bias against certain groups of persons. While a number of methods have been proposed to detect measurement invariance violations, they typically require advance definition of problematic item parameters and respondent grouping information. However, these pieces of information are typically unknown in practice. As an alternative, this paper focuses on a family of recently proposed tests based on stochastic processes of casewise derivatives of the likelihood function (i.e., scores). These score-based tests only require estimation of the null model (when measurement invariance is assumed to hold), and they have been previously applied in factor-analytic, continuous data contexts as well as in models of the Rasch family. In this paper, we aim to extend these tests to two-parameter item response models, with strong emphasis on pairwise maximum likelihood. The tests’ theoretical background and implementation are detailed, and the tests’ abilities to identify problematic item parameters are studied via simulation. An empirical example illustrating the tests’ use in practice is also provided.


pairwise maximum likelihood score-based test item response theory differential item functioning 

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© The Psychometric Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of StatisticsUniversität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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