Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on immune status in healthy women following a single bout of exercise

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Sport Sciences for Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation on immune status following a single bout of exercise. In a crossover design, 20 healthy sedentary women performed 30 min moderate-intensity cycling with (1000AA) or without (0AA) ingesting 1000 mg of AA daily for 1 week. Blood samples were taken immediately before, immediately after and 24 h post-exercise to determine the oxidative stress markers, immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophil phagocytic function. Moderate-intensity exercise in participants ranged in age from 21 to 23 years, showed no significant changes in oxidative stress markers in both cohorts. Plasma total creatine kinase was increased immediately after exercise and returned to baseline at 24 h post-exercise in both cohorts. Participants ingesting 1000 mg AA demonstrated significant higher level of plasma AA at pre-exercise and post-exercise as compared with the same time point in 0AA group. White blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts were increased immediately after exercise in both cohorts. Exercise resulted in increased lymphocyte count, CD4 + and CD8 + T cell counts immediately after exercise (p < 0.05) in 0AA group. AA supplement mitigated effects of exercise on CD4 + T cells. No significant change in neutrophil phagocytic function were observed when incubated with low or high concentrations of Candida albicans in both cohorts. These results suggested that a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise caused muscle injury with increased absolute CD4 + and CD8 + T cell counts, accompanied by a transient increase in neutrophil count, while their phagocytic function was not changed. However, a short-term AA supplementation does not show beneficial effects on exercise-induced changes in leukocyte subpopulations.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

Abbreviations

AA:

Ascorbic acid

CD:

Cluster of differentiation

VO2max :

Maximal oxygen uptake

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

RNA:

Reactive nitrogen species

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

GPx:

Glutathione peroxidase

BMI:

Body mass index

mg:

Milligram

wk:

Week

HR:

Heart rate

h:

Hour

EDTA:

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

°C:

Degree Celsius

g:

Gravity

ALT:

Alanine aminotransferase

IFCC:

International Federation of Clinical Chemistry

CK:

Creatine kinase

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

TBA:

Thiobarbituric acid

TBARS:

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

nm:

Nanometer

μmol:

Micromole

CBC:

Complete blood count

DMST:

Department of Medical Sciences Thailand

C. albicans :

Candida albicans

NSS:

Normal saline solution

CFU/mL:

colony forming unit per milliliter

FITC:

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

RD1:

Phycoerythrin

PC5:

Phycoerythrin cyanine 5

µL:

Microliter

PBS:

Phosphate-buffered saline

SE:

Standard error

WBC:

White blood cells

IL:

Interleukin

References

  1. Nakaya M, Xiao Y, Zhou X, Chang JH, Chang M, Cheng X et al (2014) Inflammatory T cell responses rely on amino acid transporter ASCT2 facilitation of glutamine uptake and mTORC1 kinase activation. Immunity 40:692–705

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop NC et al (2011) Position statement. Part one: immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 17:6–63

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bishop NC, Walker GJ, Gleeson M, Wallace FA, Hewitt CR (2009) Human T lymphocyte migration towards the supernatants of human rhinovirus infected airway epithelial cells: influence of exercise and carbohydrate intake. Exerc Immunol Rev 15:127–144

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Ortega E (2003) Neuroendocrine mediators in the modulation of phagocytosis by exercise: physiological implications. Exerc Immunol Rev 9:70–93

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Pyne DB, Baker MS, Smith JA, Telford RD, Weidemann MJ (1996) Exercise and the neutrophil oxidative burst: biological and experimental variability. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 74:564–571

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H (1995) How physical exercise influences the establishment of infections. Sports Med 19:393–400

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Pyne DB (1994) Regulation of neutrophil function during exercise. Sports Med 17:245–258

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bruunsgaard H, Pedersen BK (2000) Special feature for the olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: effects of exercise on the immune system in the elderly population. Immunol Cell Biol 78:523–531

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H, Klokker M, Kappel M, MacLean DA, Nielsen HB et al (1997) Exercise-induced immunomodulation–possible roles of neuroendocrine and metabolic factors. Int J Sports Med 18(Suppl 1):S2-7

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Moflehi D, Kok LY, Tengku-Kamalden TF, Amri S (2012) Effect of single-session aerobic exercise with varying intensities on lipid peroxidation and muscle-damage markers in sedentary males. Glob J Health Sci 4:48–54

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Pedersen BK, Toft AD (2000) Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines. Br J Sports Med 34:246–251

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Bunpo P, Anthony TG (2016) Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41:175–180

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Yimcharoen M, Kittikunnathum S, Suknikorn C, Nak-On W, Yeethong P, Anthony TG et al (2019) Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on oxidative stress markers in healthy women following a single bout of exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16:2

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Peake JM, Suzuki K, Coombes JS (2007) The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem 18:357–371

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Washko P, Rotrosen D, Levine M (1989) Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils. J Biol Chem 264:18996–19002

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Nikolouli E, Hardtke-Wolenski M, Hapke M, Beckstette M, Geffers R, Floess S et al (2017) Alloantigen-induced regulatory T cells generated in presence of vitamin C display enhanced stability of Foxp3 expression and promote skin allograft acceptance. Front Immunol 8:748

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Sasidharan Nair V, Song MH, Oh KI (2016) Vitamin C facilitates demethylation of the Foxp3 enhancer in a tet-dependent manner. J Immunol 196:2119–2131

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Bakaev VV, Duntau AP (2004) Ascorbic acid in blood serum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:263–266

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Bharara A, Grossman C, Grinnan D, Syed A, Fisher B, DeWilde C et al (2016) Intravenous vitamin C administered as adjunctive therapy for recurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome. Case Rep Crit Care 2016:8560871

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. McCarthy DA, Macdonald I, Grant M, Marbut M, Watling M, Nicholson S et al (1992) Studies on the immediate and delayed leucocytosis elicited by brief (30-min) strenuous exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 64:513–517

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Robson PJ, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Castell LM, Gleeson M (1999) Effects of exercise intensity, duration and recovery on in vitro neutrophil function in male athletes. Int J Sports Med 20:128–135

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Peake JM (2002) Exercise-induced alterations in neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst activity: possible mechanisms of action. Exerc Immunol Rev 8:49–100

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Chow O, Barbul A (2014) Immunonutrition: role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 3:46–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC et al (2017) Consensus statement immunonutrition and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 23:8–50

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Paulsen G, Benestad HB, Strom-Gundersen I, Morkrid L, Lappegard KT, Raastad T (2005) Delayed leukocytosis and cytokine response to high-force eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1877–1883

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Pedersen BK (2011) Muscles and their myokines. J Exp Biol 214:337–346

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Nieman DC, Groen AJ, Pugachev A, Vacca G (2018) Detection of functional overreaching in endurance athletes using proteomics. Proteomes. https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes6030033

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Peake JM, Della Gatta P, Suzuki K, Nieman DC (2015) Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effects. Exerc Immunol Rev 21:8–25

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Shek PN, Sabiston BH, Buguet A, Radomski MW (1995) Strenuous exercise and immunological changes: a multiple-time-point analysis of leukocyte subsets, CD4/CD8 ratio, immunoglobulin production and NK cell response. Int J Sports Med 16:466–474

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Pedersen BK (2017) Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Invest 47:600–611

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Cao Dinh H, Beyer I, Mets T, Onyema OO, Njemini R, Renmans W et al (2017) Effects of physical exercise on markers of cellular immunosenescence: a systematic review. Calcif Tissue Int 100:193–215

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Navalta JW, Mohamed R, El-Baz A, McFarlin BK, Lyons TS (2010) Exercise-induced immune cell apoptosis: image-based model for morphological assessment. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:325–331

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Busquets-Cortes C, Capo X, Bibiloni MDM, Martorell M, Ferrer MD, Argelich E et al (2018) peripheral blood mononuclear cells antioxidant adaptations to regular physical activity in elderly people. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101555

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Eftekhari P, Hajizadeh S, Raoufy MR, Masjedi MR, Yang M, Hansbro N et al (2013) Preventive effect of N-acetylcysteine in a mouse model of steroid resistant acute exacerbation of asthma. EXCLI J 12:184–192

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Bozonet SM, Carr AC, Pullar JM, Vissers MC (2015) Enhanced human neutrophil vitamin C status, chemotaxis and oxidant generation following dietary supplementation with vitamin C-rich SunGold kiwifruit. Nutrients 7:2574–2588

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. de la Fuente M, Ferrandez MD, Burgos MS, Soler A, Prieto A, Miquel J (1998) Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76:373–380

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Foroozanfar N, Lucas CF, Joss DV, Hugh-Jones K, Hobbs JR (1983) Ascorbate (1g/day) does not help the phagocyte killing defect of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Exp Immunol 51:99–102

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the superior technical assistance of Suwatsin Kittikunnathum, Hataikan Siwamoke and Sukanya Dechying. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Tracy Anthony and Dr. Panthong Singboottra Myers for helpful discussions during the writing of this manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by the Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, interpretation of data and preparation of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

PB conceived and designed the study. PB, AC, KI, KN and PK carried out all the experimental work and statistical analysis. PB participated in the manuscript design, interpretation and preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Piyawan Bunpo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Research Committee from Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University (AMSEC61EX035).

Informed consent

All the participants were informed of the purpose and demands of the study before giving their written consent to participate.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bunpo, P., Chatarurk, A., Intawong, K. et al. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on immune status in healthy women following a single bout of exercise. Sport Sci Health 17, 635–645 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00726-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00726-3

Keywords

Navigation