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Effect of pedaling cadence on serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during ergometric exercise in healthy adults

Abstract

Purpose

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a known essential mediator responsible for the beneficial effects of physical activity on brain health. Exercise-induced lactate is a potential endogenous factor that may increase BDNF expression, and the selection of cadence in exercise prescription is thought to influence lactate concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pedaling cadence on circulating BDNF levels through lactate production in healthy adult men.

Methods

Seventeen healthy adult men participated in three experimental sessions: a 40-min session of cycle-ergometry exercise with a pedaling cadence of 60 rpm at a workload of 40% peak oxygen uptake (Ex.60), a 40-min cycling exercise with a pedaling cadence of 100 rpm at the same workload as the Ex.60 (Ex.100), and a session of complete rest for 40 min (CON). Serum BDNF levels were measured before and after each session, and heart rate (HR) and lactate concentrations were evaluated after each session.

Results

Ex.100 significantly increased serum BDNF and lactate levels (p < 0.05, respectively), while CON and Ex.60 induced no significant increases in these variables (all p > 0.05). The relative change in BDNF levels had a significant strong correlation with relative change in lactate (p < 0.05) but not with change in HR (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

High-cadence aerobic exercise can increase peripheral BDNF levels through an increase in lactate concentrations, whereas the workload is low to moderate. This study indicates that exercise regimen considering pedaling cadence may have the possibility of inducing better brain health.

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Abbreviations

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

BBB:

Blood–brain barrier

BDNF:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

ECG:

Electrocardiogram

ELISA:

Enzyme-linked immunoassay

FNDC5:

Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5

HR:

Heart rate

LT:

Lactate threshold

PGC-1α:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha

RPM:

Revolutions per minute

SIRT1:

Silent information regulator 1

\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\) :

Oxygen uptake

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Acknowledgements

This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number JP15K16535 (PI: Miyamoto T).

Funding

This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number JP15K16535 (PI: Miyamoto T).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

TM, EN, TU, and RM contributed to the conception and design of the research; TM, EN, TU, RM, NM, and EY contributed to the data collection; TM, EN, TU and RM contributed to the data analyses; TM, EN, NM, and EY contributed to drafting and revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Toshiaki Miyamoto.

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The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest associated with this manuscript.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Hyogo University of Health Sciences (#15015–3) and performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

All participants provided informed consent for the study after receiving a detailed explanation of the aims, potential benefits, and risks associated with participation.

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Miyamoto, T., Nishiwaki, E., Uho, T. et al. Effect of pedaling cadence on serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during ergometric exercise in healthy adults. Sport Sci Health 17, 543–549 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00706-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00706-7

Keywords

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
  • Exercise prescription
  • Cadence
  • Frequency