The research aims to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) concentrations on the physicochemical properties of formulated sports drinks (FSDs) and the consumption of FSDs on the athletic gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance during intermittent high-intensity exercise. Three FSDs were developed from the diluted sugarcane juice (6.6% sugar content) with the addition of 2% calamansi juice, by varying FOS concentrations (0%, 1%, and 2% w/v). Thirty trained athletes performed four separate trials (1 week recovery period) using an exercise protocol consisting of sprint, lateral hopping, and sprint plus vertical jump in four quarters (Q). Each athlete received the samples in a randomized crossover counterbalance order and consumed 4.5 and 1.5 ml/kg of body weight before Q1 and Q3, and before Q2 and Q4, respectively. The GI problem questionnaire with 10-point scale was completed by the athletes after each quarter. The addition of 2% FOS significantly (p < 0.05) increased the total soluble solids and osmolality of the FSD. The intensity scores of GI problems (heartburn, reflux, bloating, flatulence, and right abdomen pain) and the cumulative GI problems index rating (Q2, Q3, and Q4) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for the FSD trial with 2% FOS compared to mineral water (MW). Significant (p < 0.05) reduction on dizziness symptom was observed for all FSD trials (0%, 1%, and 2% FOS) as compared to MW. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed on athletic sweat rate, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion among the trials. Conclusion, the FSD with 1% FOS addition is an athletic tolerable concentration without inducing GI problems.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ozen AE, Pons A, Tur JA (2012) Worldwide consumption of functional foods: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 70(8):472–481
Mike S (2017) 5 ongoing sports drinks trends in 2017. Nutritional Outlook. http://www.nutritionaloutlook.com/sports-energy/5-ongoing-sports-drinks-trends-2017. Accessed 22 Apr 2020
Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ (2012) Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9(1):1
Kalpana K, Lal PR, Kusuma DL, Khanna GL (2013) The effects of ingestion of sugarcane juice and commercial sports drinks on cycling performance of athletes in comparison to plain water. Asian J Sports Med 4(3):181
Muggeridge DJ, Howe CC, Spendiff O, Pedlar C, James PE, Easton C (2014) A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46(1):143–150
Yusof S, Shian L, Osman A (2000) Changes in quality of sugar cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage. Food Chem 68(4):395–401
Liu F, Li P, Chen M, Luo Y, Prabhakar M, Zheng H, Sheng H (2017) Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) increase bifidobacterium but reduce butyrate producing bacteria with adverse glycemic metabolism in healthy young population. Sci Rep 7(1):11789
Deibert P, Ewald A, Berg A (2002) Functional food in athletes. Eur J Sport Sci 2(4):1–21
Ritchie C (2012) Rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Journal of Physiotherapy 58(1):62
Ohlsson C, Sjögren K (2015) Effects of the gut microbiota on bone mass. Trends Endocrinol Metab 26(2):69–74
Staudacher HM, Irving PM, Lomer MC, Whelan K (2014) Mechanisms and efficacy of dietary FODMAP restriction in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11(4):256
Markowiak P, Śliżewska K (2017) Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotic on human health. Nutrients 9(9):1021
Morozov S, Isakov V, Konovalova M (2018) Fiber-enriched diet helps to control symptoms and improves esophageal motility in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J Gastroenterol 24(21):2291
Lis DM (2019) Exit Gluten-Free and Enter Low FODMAPs: a novel dietary strategy to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms in athletes. Sports Med 49(1):87–97
Olesen M, Gudmand-Høyer E (2000) Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fructooligosaccharides in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 72(6):1570–1575
Peters HPF, De Vries WR, Vanberge-Henegouwen GP, Akkermans LMA (2001) Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract. Gut 48(3):435–439
De Oliveira EP, Burini RC (2009) The impact of physical exercise on the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12(5):533–538
Costa RJS, Snipe RMJ, Kitic CM, Gibson PR (2017) Systematic review: exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome—implications for health and intestinal disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 46(3):246–265
Leiper JB, Prentice AS, Wrightson C, Maughan RJ (2001) Gastric emptying of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink during a soccer match. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(11):1932–1938
Coombes JS, Hamilton KL (2000) The effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks. Sports Med 29(3):181–209
Kunitake M, Ditchfield C, Silva C, Petrus R (2014) Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage. Ciência e Agrotecnol 38(6):554–561
Tan TC, Cheng LH, Bhat R, Rusul G, Easa AM (2014) Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut. Food Chem 142:121–128
Shi X, Horn MK, Osterberg KL, Stofan JR, Zachwieja JJ, Horswill CA, Murray R (2004) Gastrointestinal discomfort during intermittent high-intensity exercise: effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14(6):673–683
Pugh JN, Fearn R, Morton JP, Close GL (2018) Gastrointestinal symptoms in elite athletes: time to recognise the problem? Br J Sport Med 52:487–488
Pfeiffer B, Cotterill A, Grathwohl D, Stellingwerff T, Jeukendrup AE (2009) The effect of carbohydrate gels on gastrointestinal tolerance during a 16-km run. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 19(5):485–503
Cardwell G (2006) Gold medal nutrition. Human Kinetics, Inc
Oliveira EP, Burini RC (2014) Carbohydrate-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress. Nutrients 6(10):4191–4199
L’homme C, Arbelot M, Puigserver A, Biagini A (2003) Kinetics of hydrolysis of fructooligosaccharides in mineral-buffered aqueous solutions: influence of pH and temperature. J Agric Food Chem 51(1):224–228
Zeng J, Hu Y, Gao H, Sun J, Ma H (2016) Fructooligosaccharides impact on the hydration and retro-gradation of wheat starch and gel. Int J Food Prop 19(12):2682–2692
Oliveira EP, Burini RC, Jeukendrup A (2014) Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Med 44(1):79–85
Seo AY, Kim N, Oh DH (2013) Abdominal bloating: pathophysiology and treatment. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 19(4):433
Ten Bruggencate SJM, Bovee-Oudenhoven IMJ, Lettink-Wissink MLG, Katan MB, Van der Meer R (2006) Dietary fructooligosaccharides affect intestinal barrier function in healthy men. J Nutr 136(1):70–74
Azpiroz F, Serra J (2004) Treatment of excessive intestinal gas. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 7(4):299–305
Lunn J, Buttriss JL (2007) Carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutr Bull 32(1):21–64
Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59(5):129–139
Mackie AR, Rafiee H, Malcolm P, Salt L, van Aken G (2013) Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 304(11):G1038–G1043
Yu K, Ke MY, Li WH, Zhang SQ, Fang XC (2014) The impact of soluble dietary fibre on gastric emptying, postprandial blood glucose and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 23(2):210
Dikeman CL, Fahey GC Jr (2006) Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46(8):649–663
Bouin M, Savoye G, Herve S, Hellot MF, Denis P, Ducrotte P (2001) Does the supplementation of the formula with fibre increase the risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux during enteral nutrition? A human study. Clin Nutr 20(4):307–312
Wu P, Zhao XH, Ai ZS, Sun HH, Chen Y, Jiang YX, Xu SC (2013) Dietary intake and risk for reflux esophagitis: a case-control study. Gastroenterol Res Pract. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/691026
Swennen K, Courtin CM, Delcour JA (2006) Non-digestible oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46(6):459–471
Morton D, Callister R (2015) Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Sports Med 45(1):23–35
Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA (2009) Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol 587(8):1779–1794
Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM (2016) American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 48(3):543–568
The authors would like to thank the Kuok Foundation MSM Fellowship for the financial support for the first author and Universiti Sains Malaysia for providing the funds for this research through the Research University Grant (1001.PTEKIND.811338) and Bridging Grant (304. PTEKIND. 6316035).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM (HREC) under the approval code of USM/JEPeM/17020141. HREC is in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Chew, S.K., Maizura, M., Hazwani, A.Y. et al. The effect of formulated natural sport drink containing sugarcane juice, calamansi juice, and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on athletic gastrointestinal tolerance. Sport Sci Health 16, 523–530 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00642-6
- Natural sports drink
- Fructooligosaccharide (FOS)
- Gastrointestinal tolerance
- Intermittent high-intensity exercise