The study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronotype on aerobic performance, heart rate (HR) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE).
The Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to determine the chronotype’s students of the School of Exercise Sciences, University of Milan. To investigate the effect of chronotype on aerobic performance, HR and RPE, 22 participants (11 M-types, 11 E-types) performed the Cooper test at 9:00 a.m. and at 5:00 p.m. Before and after the Cooper test, the RPE was detected using the Borg Scale CR 0–10.
The two-way ANOVA showed an interaction between chronotype, time span and RPE. Specifically, M-types perceived less effort in the morning compared to the afternoon session (p < 0.05), both before (CR-10: 1.1 ± 0.8 vs 2.5 ± 1.3) and after exercise (CR-10: 7.4 ± 1 vs 8.6 ± 1). E-types felt more fatigued in the morning than in the afternoon session (p < 0.05), both before (CR-10: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.1) and after exercise (CR-10: 8.4 ± 0.6 vs 7.5 ± 0.7). Moreover, in the morning session, E-types had a greater perception of the effort (CR-10: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs 8.4 ± 0.6) than M-types (CR-10: 1.1 ± 0.8 vs 7.4 ± 1). Instead, in the afternoon session, M-types showed higher RPE values (CR-10: 2.5 ± 1.3 vs 8.6 ± 1) than E-types (CR-10: 1.1 ± 1.1 vs 7.5 ± 0.7). Cooper Test and HR results did not show statistically significant differences. On the other hand, no interaction was found between chronotype, day time and performance or HR.
M-types perceive higher effort in the afternoon session; by contrast, E-types show an opposite trend and are more fatigued in the morning session. These findings may be useful to the coach to plane tailored training programs.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adan A, Archer SN, Hidalgo MP, Di Milia L, Natale V, Randler C (2012) Circadian typology: a comprehensive review. Chronobiol Int 29(9):1153–1175
Montaruli A, Galasso L, Caumo A, Cè E, Pesenti C, Roveda E, Esposito F (2017) The circadian typology: the role of physical activity and melatonin. Sport Sci Health 13(3):469–476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-017-0389-y
Kim SJ, Lee YJ, Kim H et al (2010) Age as a moderator of the association between depressive symptoms and morningnesseveningness. J Psychosom Res 68:159–164
Horne JA, Ostberg O (1976) A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness–eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 4:97–111
Roveda E, Vitale J, Montaruli A, Galasso L, Carandente F, Caumo A (2017) Predicting the actigraphy-based acrophase using the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) in college students of North Italy. Chronobiol Int 34(5):551–562
Montaruli A, Galasso L, Carandente F, Vitale J, Roveda E, Caumo A (2017) If the Morning–Evening Questionnaire (MEQ) is able to predict the actigraphy-based acrophase, how does its reduced, five-item version (rMEQ) perform? Chronobiol Int 34(4):443–444
Souissi N, Gauthier A, Sesboé B, Larue J, Davenne D (2004) Circadian rhythms in two types of anaerobic cycle leg exercise: force–velocity and 30-s Wingate test. Int J Sports Med 25:14–19
Postolache MD, Hung TM, Rosenthal RN, Soriano JJ, Montes F, Stiller JW (2005) Sports chronobiology consultation: from the lab to the arena. Clin Sports Med 24:415–456
Javierre C, Calvo M, Diez A, Garrido E, Segura R, Ventura JD (1996) Influence of sleep and meal schedules peaks in competitive sprinters. Int J Sports Med 17:404–408
Reilly T, Atkinson G, Waterhouse JM (2000) Chronobiology and physical performance. In: Garrett WE Jr, Kirkendall DT (eds) Exercise and sports science. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 351–372
Montaruli A, Roveda E, Calogiuri G, Torre A, Carandente F (2009) The sportsman readjustment after transcontinental flight: a study on marathon runners. J Sport Med Phys Fit 49(4):372–381
Gifford LS (1987) Circadian variation in human flexibility and grip strength. Aust J Physiother 33(1):3–9
Wright V, Dawson D, Longfield MD (1969) Joint stiffness its characterization and significance. Biol Med Eng 4:8–14
Galasso L, Montaruli A, Bruno E, Pesenti C, Erzegovesi S, Cè E, Coratella G, Roveda E, Esposito F (2018) Aerobic exercise training improves physical performance of patients with binge-eating disorder. Sport Sci Health 14(1):47–51
Bruno E, Roveda E, Vitale J, Montaruli A, Berrino F, Villarini A, Venturelli E, Gargano G, Galasso L, Caumo A, Carandente F, Pasanisi P (2018) Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on markers of insulin resistance in breast cancer women. Eur J Cancer Care 27(2):e12617
Roveda E, Sciolla C, Montaruli A, Calogiuri G, Angeli A, Carandente F (2011) Effects of endurance and strength acute exercise on night sleep quality. Int SportMed J 12(3):113–124
Roveda E, Montaruli A, Galasso L, Pesenti C, Bruno E, Pasanisi P, Cortellini M, Rampichini S, Erzegovesi S, Caumo A, Esposito F (2018) Rest-activity circadian rhythm and sleep quality in patients with binge eating disorder. Chronobiol Int 35(2):198–207
Roveda E, Vitale J, Bruno E, Montaruli A, Pasanisi P, Villarini A, Gargano G, Galasso L, Berrino F, Caumo A, Carandente F (2017) Protective effect of aerobic physical activity on sleep behavior in breast cancer survivors. Integr Cancer Ther 16(1):21–31
Vitale J, Montaruli A, Michielon G, Scurati R, Alberti G, Carandente F, Roveda E (2017) Sleep quality and cytokine expression after an exhaustive exercise: influence of ACE polymorphism I/D. Sleep Biol Rhythm 15(1):31–37
Montaruli A, Patrini P, Roveda E, Carandente F (2012) Physical activity and breast cancer. Sport Sci Health 8(1):1–13
Carandente F, MontaruliA Roveda E, Calogiuri G, Michielon G, La Torre A (2006) Morning or evening training: effect on heart rate circadian rhythm. Sport Sci Health 1(3):113–117
Zani A, Rossi B, Borriello A, Mecacci L (1984) Diurnal interindividual differences in the habitual activity pattern of top level athletes. J Sports Med Physiol Fit 24:307–310
Vitale JA, Weydahl A (2017) Chronotype, physical activity, and sport performance: a systematic review. Sports Med 47:1859–1868
Rae DE, Stephenson KJ, Roden LC (2015) Factors to consider when assessing diurnal variation in sports performance: the influence of chronotype and habitual training time-of-day. Eur J Appl Physiol 115:1339–1349
Hill DW, Cureton KJ, Collins MA, Grisham SC (1988) Diurnal variations in responses to exercise of “morning types” and “evening types”. J Sports Med Phys Fit 28(3):213–219
Wung BP, Holland GJ, Loy SF, Vincent WJ (1992) A comparison of morning and evening ‘types’ during maximum exercises. J Appl Sport Sci Res 6:115–119
Rossi A, Formenti D, Vitale JA, Calogiuri G, Weydahl A (2015) The effect of chronotype on psychophysiological responses during aerobic self-placed exercises. Percept Motor Skills 121:55–80
Kunorozva L, Roden LC, Rae DE (2014) Perception of effort in morning-evening cyclists is lower when exercising in the morning. J Sport Sci 32:917–925
Atkinson G, Todd G, Reilly T, Waterhouse J (2005) Diurnal variation in cycling performance: influence of warm-up. J Sport Sci 23:321–329
Reilly T, Atkinson G, Edwards B, Waterhouse J, Farelly K, Fairhurst E (2007) Diurnal variation in temperature, mental and physical performance, and tasks specifically related to football (soccer). Chronobiol Int 24(3):507–519
Horne JA, Osteberg O (1976) A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology 4(2):97–110 (PMID: 1027738)
Nogueira EC, Porto LGG, Nogueira RM, Martins WR, Fonseca RMC, Lunardi CC, De Oliveira RJ (2016) Body composition is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in a large Brazilian military firefighter cohort: the Brazilian firefighters study. J Strength Cond Res 30(1):33–38
Borg G (1970) Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehab Med 2:92–98
Borg G (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14(5):377–381
Vitale JA, Calogiuri G, Weydahl A (2013) Influence of chronotype on responses to a standardized, self-paced walking task in the morning vs afternoon: a pilot study. Percept Motor Skills Exerc Sport 16(3):1–9
Sugawara J, Hamada Y, Nishjima T, Matsuda M (2001) Diurnal variations of post exercise parasympathetic nervous reactivation in different chronotypes. Jpn Heart J 42(2):163–171
Conflicts of interest
The authors have not conflict of interest.
The study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of the University of Milan.
Participants were informed about the aim and design of the study and that participation was voluntary. Written, informed consent for data collection was obtained.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mulè, A., Galasso, L., Castelli, L. et al. Effect of chronotype on rating of perceived exertion in active young people. Sport Sci Health 16, 331–336 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-019-00610-9