Skip to main content

Acute effects of knee wraps/sleeve on kinetics, kinematics and muscle forces during the barbell back squat

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the current investigation was to comparatively examine the effects of knee wraps/sleeves on kinetics, three-dimensional kinematics and muscle forces during the barbell back squat.

Methods

Fifteen male lifters completed squats at 70% of their 1 repetition maximum, in four different conditions (nothing, competition knee wrap, training knee wrap and knee sleeve). Three-dimensional kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system, ground reaction forces using a force platform and muscle forces using musculoskeletal modelling techniques. Differences between conditions were examined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA.

Results

The results showed that the integral of the quadriceps (nothing = 58.30, competition = 51.87 and training wrap = 53.33 N/kg s), hamstring (nothing = 39.01, competition = 35.61 and training wrap = 33.97 N/kg s), gluteus maximus (nothing = 24.29, competition = 22.22 and training wrap = 21.03 N/kg s), gastrocnemius (nothing = 7.25, competition = 5.97 and training wrap = 6.39 N/kg s) and soleus muscles (nothing = 15.49, competition = 12.75 and training wrap = 13.64 N/kg s) during the ascent phase was significantly greater in the nothing condition compared to both knee wraps. In addition, whilst knee wraps and knee sleeves significantly improved perceived knee stability, perceived comfort was significantly reduced in the knee wraps and improved in the knee sleeve.

Conclusions

Taking into account the reduced muscle kinetics, knee wraps may diminish lower extremity muscle development. Therefore, knee sleeves may be more efficacious for athletes who regularly utilise the back squat for their training goals, although further longitudinal analyses are required before this can be fully established.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Schoenfeld BJ (2010) Squatting kinematics and kinetics and their application to exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 24(12):3497–3506

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Paoli A, Marcolin G, Petrone N (2009) The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads. J Strength Cond Res 23(1):246–250

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lake JP, Carden PJ, Shorter KA (2012) Wearing knee wraps affects mechanical output and performance characteristics of back squat exercise. J Strength Cond Res 26(10):2844–2849

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Marchetti PH, Matos VDJP, Soares EG, Silva JJ, Serpa EP, Corrêa DA, Gomes WA (2015) Can the technique of knee wrap placement affect the maximal isometric force during back squat exercise. Int J Sports Sci 5(1):16–18

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gomes WA, Serpa EP, Soares EG, da Silva JJ, Corrêa DA, de Oliveira FHD, Marchetti PH (2014) Acute effects on maximal isometric force with and without knee wrap during squat exercise. Int J Sports Sci 4(2):47–49

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gomes WA, Brown LE, Soares EG, da Silva JJ, Fernando HDO, Serpa ÉP, Marchetti PH (2015) Kinematic and sEMG analysis of the back squat at different intensities with and without knee wraps. J Strength Cond Res 29(9):2482–2487

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sinclair JK, Vincent H, Richards JD (2017) Effects of prophylactic knee bracing on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements. Phys Ther Sport 23:93–98

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Cappozzo A, Catani F, Della Croce U, Leardini A (1995) Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination. Clin Biomech 10(4):171–178

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sinclair JK, Brooks D, Atkins S (2017) An examination of the hamstring and the quadriceps muscle kinematics during the front and back squat in males. Balt J Health Phys Act 9(1):37–45

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Graydon RW, Fewtrell DJ, Atkins S, Sinclair JK (2015) The test–retest reliability of different ankle joint center location techniques. Foot Ankle Online J 1(11):10–15

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sinclair J, Taylor PJ, Currigan G, Hobbs SJ (2014) The test–retest reliability of three different hip joint centre location techniques. Mov Sport Sci Sci Mot 83:31–39

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sinclair J, Hebron J, Taylor PJ (2015) The test–retest reliability of knee joint center location techniques. J Appl Biomech 31(2):117–121

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lahti J, Hegyi A, Vigotsky AD, Ahtiainen JP (2019) Effects of barbell back squat stance width on sagittal and frontal hip and knee kinetics. Scand J Med Sci Sports 29(1):44–54

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Sinclair J, McCarthy D, Bentley I, Hurst HT, Atkins S (2015) The influence of different footwear on 3-D kinematics and muscle activation during the barbell back squat in males. Eur J Sport Sci 15(7):583–590

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sinclair JK, Atkins SJ, Kudiersky N, Taylor PJ, Vincent H (2015) Effects of front and back squat techniques on patellofemoral joint kinetics in males. J Biomed Eng Inf 2(1):76–81

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    van Eijden TMGJ, Kouwenhoven E, Verburg J, Weijs WA (1986) A mathematical model of the patellofemoral joint. J Biomech 19(3):219–229

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Willson JD, Sharpee R, Meardon SA, Kernozek TW (2014) Effects of step length on patellofemoral joint stress in female runners with and without patellofemoral pain. Clin Biomech 29(3):243–247

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ward SR, Eng CM, Smallwood LH, Lieber RL (2009) Are current measurements of lower extremity muscle architecture accurate? Clin Orthop Relat Res 467(4):1074–1082

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Németh G, Ohlsén H (1985) In vivo moment arm lengths for hip extensor muscles at different angles of hip flexion. J Biomech 18(2):129–140

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Self BP, Paine D (2001) Ankle biomechanics during four landing techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(8):1338–1344

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sinclair J, Atkins S, Vincent H (2014) Influence of different hip joint centre locations on hip and knee joint kinetics and kinematics during the squat. J Hum Kinet 44(1):5–17

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Janssen I, Steele JR, Munro BJ, Brown NA (2013) Predicting the patellar tendon force generated when landing from a jump. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45(5):927–934

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Herzog W, Read LJ (1993) Lines of action and moment arms of the major force-carrying structures crossing the human knee joint. J Anat 182(Pt 2):213

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Besier TF, Draper CE, Gold GE, Beaupré GS, Delp SL (2005) Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing. J Orthop Res 23(2):345–350

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vigotsky AD, Contreras B, Beardsley C (2015) Biomechanical implications of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy: a musculoskeletal model. Peer J 3:e1462

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Winwood PW, Keogh JW, Harris NK (2012) Interrelationships between strength, anthropometrics, and strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 26(2):513–522

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lorenzetti S, Ostermann M, Zeidler F, Zimmer P, Jentsch L, List R, Schellenberg F (2018) How to squat? Effects of various stance widths, foot placement angles and level of experience on knee, hip and trunk motion and loading. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 10(1):14–19

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Strength Shop Ltd, UK who donated the knee sleeves used in this investigation and also SBD Apparel Ltd, UK who provided the knee wraps utilised in this study. However, the results of this study do not constitute endorsement by the authors.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan Sinclair.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional (STEMH ethical committee REF = 458) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sinclair, J., Mann, J., Weston, G. et al. Acute effects of knee wraps/sleeve on kinetics, kinematics and muscle forces during the barbell back squat. Sport Sci Health 16, 227–237 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-019-00595-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Knee wraps
  • Squat
  • Kinetics
  • Kinematics