Periodization of exercise induces long-term weight loss while focusing strictly on improvements in cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness for individuals who are overfat

Original Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Exercise goals that tend to focus on weight loss have varying degrees of long-term success, leading to the phenomenon commonly referenced as yo-yo dieting. The aim of the investigation is to examine the impact of periodized training focused on specific performance goals on long-term weight loss and improvement in fitness for individuals who are overfat with long-term history of yo-yoing.

Methods

12 family-related overfat volunteers, 28 ± 5 year and average history of overfatness 8 ± 12 year, completed 108-week periodized training program, broken into 9–12 week mesocycles combining progressive and undulating periodization of exercise choice and training volume for specific improvements in performance measures. Diet was energy density standardized to Cal/d of 90–95% BMR and macronutrient standardized to have a protein intake of 2.2 g/kg BM and carbohydrates intake of 50–100 g/d.

Results

There was an average reduction of 35 ± 3% in total body mass and 72 ± 9% fat mass, with a gain of 9 ± 8% in fat-free mass across the length of the study. This was accompanied by 56 ± 3% increase in aerobic fitness and 52 ± 14% reduction in resting heart rate, and strength and endurance gains of 148 ± 65% (squat), 130 ± 10% (dead lift), 110 ± 33% (leg press), 88 ± 27% (lateral pull-downs), 102 ± 36% (bench press), and 720 ± 260% (1-min push-up) and 271 ± 44% (1-min sit-up).

Conclusion

Periodized exercise focusing on performance changes, and not weight loss, may provide the stimulus necessary for long-term behavioral modification that is necessary for long-term changes to body composition, where the performance goals may induce a reward response and encourage continuation of exercise for longer durations than had previously attained.

Keywords

Performance Overfatness Obesity Yo-yo diet Fitness Body composition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank JP, MHA, and MB for their assistance in the training of the individuals during the intervention period.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author has no conflicts of interest in the publication of this study.

Ethical approval

All methods of recruitment and method of investigation were reviewed and approved by the Research Ethics Committee associated with Scientific Health Education and Human Performance, prior to the recruitment of any volunteers for this study in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki for human research.

Informed consent

Every volunteer was provided information pertaining to the goals and methods of the experiment and subsequently provided an informed consent to participate in the study.

Supplementary material

11332_2018_450_MOESM1_ESM.docx (45 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 45 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ahima RS (2011) Digging deeper into obesity. J Clin Invest. 121:2076–2079CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anton SD, Manini TM, Milsom VA, Dubyak P, Cesari M, Cheng J et al (2011) Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging 6:141–149CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bacon L, Aphramor L (2011) Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift. Nutr J 10:9CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bamman MM, Cooper DM, Booth FW, Chin ER, Neufer PD, Trappe S et al (2014) Exercise biology and medicine: innovative research to improve global health. Mayo Clin Proc 89:148–153CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark JE (2012) An overview of the contribution of fatness and fitness factors, and the role of exercise, in the formation of health status for individuals who are overweight. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2012(11):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark JE, Goon DT (2015) The roles of resistance training for treatment of obesity related health issue and for changing helath status of the individual who is overfat or obese: a review. J Sports Med Phys Fit 55:205–222Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hafekost K, Lawrence D, Mitrou F, O’sullivan TA, Zubrick SR (2013) Tackling overweight and obesity: does the public health message match the science? BMC Med 11:41CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwingshackl L, Dias S, Strasser B, Hoffmann G (2013) Impact of different training modalities on anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in overweight/obese subjects: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLoS One 8:e82853CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strasser B (2013) Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 1281:141–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas SL, Hyde J, Karunaratne A, Kausman R (2008) Komesaroff PA (2008), ``They all work…when you stick to them’’: a qualitative investigation of dieting, weight loss, and physical exercise, in obese individuals. Nutr J 7:34CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clark JE (2016) The impact of duration on effectiveness of exercise, the implication for periodization of training and goal setting for individuals who are overfat, a meta-analysis. Biol Sport 33:309–333CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hall KD (2013) Diet versus exercise in ``the biggest loser’’ weight loss competition. Obesity 21:957–959CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown RE, Canning KL, Fung M, Jiandani D, Riddell MC, Macpherson AK et al (2016) Calorie estimation in adults differing in body weight class and weight loss status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 48:521–526CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas DM, Martin CK, Lettieri S, Bredlau C, Kaiser K, Church T et al (2013) Can a weight loss of one pound a week be achieved with a 3500 kcal deficit? Commentary on a commonly accepted rule. Int J Obes (Lond) 37:1611–1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P (2007) Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. Ann Nutr Metab 51:428–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bandura A (2004) Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Educ Behav 31:143–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ (2012) Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Compr Physiol 2:1143–1211PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Outland L, Stoner-Smith M (2013) Promoting homeostasis to avoid rebound weight gain in yo-yo dieters. Internet J Adv Nurs Pract 12(1):1–6Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Locke EA, Latham GP (2006) New directions in goal-setting theory. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 15:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hooper LE, Foster-Schubert KE, Weigle DS, Sorensen B, Ulrich CM, McTiernan A (2010) Frequent intentional weight loss is associated with higher ghrelin and lower glucose and androgen levels in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 30:163–170CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clark JE (2015) Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18–65 years old) who are overfat, or obese; systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes Metab Disord 14:31.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0154-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Armstrong LE (2007) Assessing hydration status: the elusive gold standard. J Am Coll Nutr 26:575S–584SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bandyopadhyay A (2015) Validity of cooper’s 12-min run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in male university students. Biol Sport 32:59–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mayhew JL, Ball TE, Arnold MD, Bowen JC (1992) Relative muscular endurance performance as a predictory of bench press strength in college men and women. J Appl Sports Sci Res 6:200–206Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    LeSuer DA, McCormick JH, Mayhew JL, Wasserstein RL, Arnold MD (1997) The accuracy of prediction equations for estimating 1-RM preformance in the bench press, squat, and deadlift. J Strength Cond Res 11:211–213Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clark JE (2010) The use of an 8 week mixed-intensity interval endurance-training program improves the aerobic fitness of female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24:1773–1781CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK et al (2009) American college of sports medicine position stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:459–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hills AP, Shultz SP, Soares MJ, Byrne NM, Hunter GR, King NA et al (2010) Resistance training for obese, type 2 diabetic adults: a review of the evidence. Obes Rev 11:740–749CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Committee American Heart Association Nutrition, Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S et al (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 114:82–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eriksson JG (1999) Exercise and the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An update. Sports Med 27:381–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hainer V, Toplak H, Mitrakou A (2008) Treatment modalities of obesity: what fits whom? Diabetes Care 31(Suppl 2):S269–S277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bo S, Ciccone G, Guidi S, Gambino R, Durazzo M, Gentile L et al (2008) Diet or exercise: what is more effective in preventing or reducing metabolic alterations? Eur J Endocrinol 159:685–691CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jakicic JM (2009) The effect of physical activity on body weight. Obes (Silver Spring) 17(Suppl 3):S34–S38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Votruba SB, Horvitz MA, Schoeller DA (2000) The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity. Nutrition 16:179–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Budgett R (1998) Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome. Br J Sports Med 32:107–110CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E (2006) Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. Int J Obes (Lond) 30:652–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA (2004) Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:674–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sale DG (1988) Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20:S135–S145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientific Health: Education and Human PerformanceVernon-RockvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations