Anterior cruciate ligament injury in amateur football players: risk factors and return to sport after surgical reconstruction
To investigate mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, risk factors and outcome in amateur football players.
We analysed with a specific questionnaire and KOOS score 81 amateur players, at 2 years from injury and operation.
62% of athletes played like midfielders, the other 38% like defenders or strikers (p < 0.01). 83% of ACL injuries occurred in preferred leg (p < 0.01) and in 76.5% cases were due to an indirect trauma. 85% of injuries occurred during a football match. 80% of players used circular cleats (p < 0.01). G-ST graft was used in 68% and BTB in 32%. Mean injury age was 20.7 ± 2.53 years. Mean time between operation and first training was 142 ± 3.83 days and between operation and first match was 188 ± 4.45 days. Mean KOOS score at 2 years was 97.6 ± 2.14% in G-ST group and 97 ± 1.23% in BTB group (p > 0.1). They felt at about 85% of their pre-injury level with G-ST as graft and at 89% with BTB (p > 0.1).
ACL injury in amateur football athletes occurs mainly during matches and is often due to an indirect trauma. Midfielder is more at risk, especially in his preferred leg and particularly if he wears shoes with circular cleats. After recovery, first training is at about 142 days and first match at 188. KOOS score and subjective feeling of recovery show satisfactory results at 2 years from surgery.
KeywordsACL injury Football Amateur football players Return to sport
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors deny relationships or interests (financial and non) that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 22.Backous DD, Friedl KE, Smith NJ et al (1988) Soccer injuries and their relation to physical maturity. Am J Dis Child 142(839–842):4Google Scholar
- 23.Keller CS, Noyes FR, Buncher CR (1987) The medical aspects of soccer injury epidemiology. Am J Sports Med 15(230–237):31Google Scholar
- 30.Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA et al (2014) Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. Br J Sports Med 48(21):1543–1552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Waldén M, Hägglund M, Magnusson H et al (2016) ACL injuries in men’s professional football: a 15-year prospective study on time trends and return-to-play rates reveals only 65% of players still play at the top level 3 years after ACL rupture. Br J Sports Med 50(12):744–750CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar