Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 313–322 | Cite as

Cross-cultural adaptation to the Brazilian Portuguese language of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities

  • Renata Machado Teixeira
  • Eveline Torres Pereira
  • Matthew J. Maenner
  • Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque
Original Article


Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) is a free and brief measure of activities daily living (ADL) for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. However, its use is limited in non-English-speaking countries. For this reason, translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation for other languages are needed. Thus, this study aimed to perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the W-ADL from English to Portuguese language. We used a rigorous approach for translating and adapting the scale, which included a committee of six experts to assess content validity. We also conducted interviews with 62 caregivers of people with a medical diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Down syndrome (DS) with different age groups who responded about the person with ASD or DS in their care. Our results include all steps from the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process. Item Content Validity Index showed that items 5 and 16 showed values not acceptable in “relevance” and “theoretical dimension”. On the other hand, the scale content validity index indicated acceptable value. Furthermore, our results showed that our version had acceptable reliability, did not presented floor and ceiling effects, and was able to discriminate subjects from different age groups, as expected. In conclusion, the two versions of the Portuguese version of the W-ADL Scale (15 items and 17 items) demonstrated the acceptable validity and reliability measurement to evaluate ADL for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. However, the 15-item version seems to be the best option for Portuguese language speakers.


Activities of daily living Scale Developmental disabilities Adolescents Adults Validation 



The authors would also like to thank the caregivers and the six experts who assisted with the scale analysis.


This study was supported by Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no potential conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the local ethical committee of the Institutional Review Board (protocol number: 43853215.6.0000.5153).

Informed consent

Participants signed an informed consent after receiving a full explanation of the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação FísicaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Educação FísicaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  3. 3.AtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Departamento de Esporte, Escola de Educação Física, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional (EEFFTO)Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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