Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 99–106 | Cite as

Relative age effects despite weight categories in elite junior male wrestlers

  • David H. Fukuda
  • Jayla D. Kelly
  • Maicon R. Albuquerque
  • Jeffrey R. Stout
  • Jay R. Hoffman
Original Article



To evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in wrestlers at the junior world championships.


Data for wrestling athletes representing 77 different countries that participated in the junior (under 21 years of age) world championships between 2006 and 2014 were collected from a publically available source. RAEs were examined among 807 female freestyle, 1205 male freestyle, and 1202 male Greco-Roman wrestlers. Athletes were sub-categorized by weight class, as medalists, and according to the number of years active in wrestling. The observed frequency of athletes per birth quarter was compared to an even quarterly distribution using χ 2 tests.


No RAEs were shown for female freestyle wrestlers. For male freestyle wrestlers, RAEs were found for the overall group, the medalists, all but the extra lightweights (under 50/55 kg), and both the least (<5 years active) and moderately (5–7 years active) experienced. For male Greco-Roman wrestlers, RAEs were shown for the overall group, the middle (under 74/84 kg) and heavy weights (under 96/120 kg), and only the moderately experienced (5–7 years active).


Despite weight categorization, junior male wrestlers are susceptible to RAEs; however, effects in the lightest and most experienced athletes may be diminished. Differences across weight categories appear to convey different trends between the male freestyle and Greco-Roman athletes. Thus, sporting organizations, training staff, and others interested in the welfare of athletes should consider the potential impact of RAEs in wrestling.


Maturity Adolescence Combat sports Talent Sex Body mass 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was submitted to the university’s institutional review board (ID#: SBE-15-11620) and it was determined that the research activity was not human research as defined by federal guidelines. All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Fukuda
    • 1
  • Jayla D. Kelly
    • 1
  • Maicon R. Albuquerque
    • 2
  • Jeffrey R. Stout
    • 1
  • Jay R. Hoffman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Exercise Physiology and WellnessUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Sports DepartmentUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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