Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 27–33 | Cite as

Free throw shot in basketball: kinematic analysis of scored and missed shots during the learning process

  • Achraf AmmarEmail author
  • Hamdi Chtourou
  • Osama Abdelkarim
  • Anthony Parish
  • Anita Hoekelmann
Original Article


The aims of the present study were to analyze selected kinematical parameters of free throw shooting in basketball performed during the learning process and identify which one has a greater effect on success. Fifteen FT attempts performed by 10 male college sports students were recorded with a high-speed camera (200 Hz) and analyzed using the system software SIMI-Motion. Statistical analysis showed that the knee angle helped determine success in FT shooting. Comparing various body angles effect on missed to scored baskets, only knee angles showed a significant difference with a higher value in scored baskets (p < 0.05); more specifically only knee angle was highly correlated to the performance and to the hand velocity with p < 0.05 (r = 0.7and −0.75, respectively). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that in an inexpert player, the knee angle is the variable in which a teacher or a coach should intervene to improve the learning outcomes (i.e., performance). However, more studies in this field using expert players are necessary to confirm these suggestions in high-level athletes.


Performance analysis Angular displacement Angular velocity 



This research was partially supported by the project “Academic Innovation in Sport Science in Network” as part of the “Transformation Partnership” program financed and offered by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Achraf Ammar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hamdi Chtourou
    • 1
    • 3
  • Osama Abdelkarim
    • 2
  • Anthony Parish
    • 4
  • Anita Hoekelmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Unit (EM2S), High Institute of Sport and Physical EducationSfax UniversitySfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Institute of Sport ScienceOtto-von-Guericke-UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  3. 3.Research Laboratory “Sport Performance Optimization” National Center of Medicine and Sciences in Sport (CNMSS)TunisTunisia
  4. 4.Adolescent and Adult Education Sports CenterArmstrong State UniversitySavannahUSA

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