The effectiveness of an 8-week Zumba programme for weight reduction in a group of Maltese overweight and obese women
- 857 Downloads
Zumba dance exercises are promoted for body weight reduction. However, scientific research on its potential as a weight loss tool is scant. Only a few energy expenditure studies on small samples of relatively young and apparently healthy volunteers were performed, and the energy cost of Zumba has not been translated into actual weight reduction. The study investigated the before–after effects of a Zumba programme on the weight and body mass index (BMI) of 36 females, mean age 34.25 ± 8.50 years and mean BMI 32.98 ± 5.32 kg/m2.
The intervention involved 16 hourly Zumba sessions held twice weekly over 8 weeks. The exercises comprised a mixture of merengue, salsa, reggaeton and bachata with warm-up and cool-down activities. They were of low-impact style, but were maintained at vigorous intensity that was still bearable for the obese subjects. An important requirement was that the programme had to be taken as an additional part of their lives and not as a means of altering their nutrition and physical activity habits.
The subjects had statistically significant decreases and large effects for weight and BMI: 2.13 kg, t (35) = 13.77, P < 0.0005, d = 2.30, and 0.83 kg/m2, t (35) = 13.02, P < 0.0005, d = 2.17, respectively.
Good programme adherence and other strengths were attributed to this study. However, there could have been factors like history threats that affected the changes. Further studies are therefore required to establish the effectiveness of Zumba as an exercise modality for weight loss.
KeywordsBody mass index Body weight Obesity Overweight Weight loss Zumba
The author thanks Mrs. June Sampson and Prof. Antony Stewart from Staffordshire University for their support. Further acknowledgements go to the Malta Sports Council (KMS) and the Ministry of Health for allowing the author sufficient time to do the necessary research and preparations for this study. The permission from the KMS and the University of Malta to use their hall for the Zumba sessions is also appreciated. Gratitude is extended to the Zumba instructress, Ms. Johanna Refalo, who was an asset for the success of the programme. Further gratitude is expressed to the technical assistance of Mr. William Galea, a KMS Executive Officer. This paper was not supported by any funding body.
Conflict of interest
There was no conflict of interest to declare.
- 2.Lopez D (2013) Healthy benefits of Zumba. Zumba Dance Web. http://zumbadancelv.blogspot.com/2013/03/healthy-benefits-of-zumba_3.html. Accessed 21 May 2014
- 3.Sugar J (2014) Tips for Zumba class newbies. Popsugar Web. http://www.fitsugar.com/Beginner-Zumba-Class-Tips-From-Instructor-18975667. Accessed 21 May 2014
- 4.Diu NL (2013) Why Britain is going crazy for Zumba. The Telegraph Web. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/9843930/Why-Britain-is-going-crazy-for-Zumba.html. Accessed 21 May 2014
- 6.American College of Sports Medicine (2009) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 8th edn. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 7.Otto RM, Maniguet E, Peters A, Boutagy N, Gabbard A, Wygand JW, Yoke M (2011) The energy cost of Zumba exercise. Off J Am Coll Sports Med 43:S329Google Scholar
- 10.Dyrstad SM, Hausken K (2013) Using accelerometer to estimate energy expenditures with four equations in four training sessions. IJASS 25:91–101Google Scholar
- 11.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008) 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 12.Kim J, Nitsch D, Wang D, Bakhai A (2006) Uncontrolled trials. In: Wang D, Bakhai A (eds) Clinical trials: a practical guide to design, analysis, and reporting. Remedica, London, pp 15–21Google Scholar
- 13.Swinscow TDV, Campbell MJ (2002) Statistics at square one, 10th edn. BMJ Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 14.Crawford S, Eklund RC (1994) Social physique anxiety, reasons for exercise and attitudes toward exercise settings. J Sport Exerc Psychol 16:70–82Google Scholar
- 15.World Health Organization (2006) BMI classification. World Health Organization Web. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html. Accessed 21 May 2014
- 16.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996) Physical activity and health: a report of the surgeon general. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- 18.Gezer E, Çakmakçi E (2011) The effect of eight weeks step-aerobic exercise program on body composition and quality of life of sedentary women. Sci Mov Health 11:97–101Google Scholar
- 19.Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- 20.Talk Stats (2013) Minimum sample size for paired t tests. Talk Stats Web. http://www.talkstats.com/showthread.php/28248-Minimum-sample-size-for-paired-t-tests. Accessed 21 May 2014
- 23.World Health Organization (2007) The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
- 24.Hardman AE, Stensel DJ (2009) Physical activity and health: the evidence explained, 2nd edn. Routledge, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 25.Ali AT, Crowther NJ (2009) Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature. JEMDSA 14:81–84Google Scholar
- 30.American College of Sports Medicine (2005) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 7th edn. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 31.Trochim WMK, Donnelly JP (2008) The research methods knowledge base, 3rd edn. Atomic Dog, MasonGoogle Scholar
- 32.Arslan F (2011) The effects of an eight-week step-aerobic dance exercise programme on body composition parameters in middle-aged sedentary obese women. ISMJ 12:160–168Google Scholar