Validation of noncontact cardiorespiratory monitoring using impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar against nocturnal polysomnography

Abstract

Purpose

Polysomnography (PSG) is a standard diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, PSG requires many skin-contacted sensors to monitor vital signs of patients, which may also hamper patients’ sleep. Because impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar can detect the movements of heart and lungs without contact, it may be utilized for vital sign monitoring during sleep. Therefore, we aimed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the breathing rate (BR) and the heart rate (HR) measured by IR-UWB radar.

Method

Data acquisition with PSG and IR-UWB radar was performed simultaneously in 6 healthy volunteers and in 15 patients with suspected OSA. Subjects were divided into 4 groups (normal, mild OSA, moderate OSA, and severe OSA) according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BRs and HRs obtained from the radar using a software algorithm were compared with the BRs (chest belt) and the HRs (electrocardiography) obtained from the PSG.

Results

In normal and in mild OSA, BRs (intraclass correlation coefficients R [ICCR] 0.959 [0.956–0.961] and 0.957 [0.955–0.960], respectively) and HRs ([ICCR] 0.927 [0.922–0.931] and 0.926 [0.922–0.931], respectively) measured in the radar showed excellent agreement with those measured in PSG. In moderate and severe OSA, BRs ([ICCR] 0.957 [0.956–0.959] and 0.873 [0.864–0.882], respectively) and HRs ([ICCR] 0.907 [0.904–0.910] and 0.799 [0.784–0.812], respectively) from the two methods also agreed well.

Conclusions

The IR-UWB radar could accurately measure BRs and HRs in sleeping patients with OSA. Therefore, IR-UWB radar may be utilized as a cardiopulmonary monitor during sleep.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) and was funded by the Korean government (MIST) (No. 2017M3A9E2064626).

Funding

This work was funded by the Korean government (MIST) (No. 2017M3A9E2064626).

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Authors

Contributions

SK conducted the experiments and the processing of the data; YL performed statistical analysis; YHL and SeokHC conceived the research idea; SeokHC, YGL and SK wrote the paper; SungHC, YHL and HKP provided critical feedback on the paper.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Sung Ho Cho or Seok Hyun Cho.

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Kang, S., Lee, Y., Lim, YH. et al. Validation of noncontact cardiorespiratory monitoring using impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar against nocturnal polysomnography. Sleep Breath 24, 841–848 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01908-1

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Keywords

  • Cardiopulmonary
  • Apnea
  • Radar
  • Polysomnography
  • Noncontact
  • Monitoring