Experimental sleep restriction effect on adult body weight: a meta-analysis

Abstract

Background

Sleep is increasingly recognized as a potential risk for overweight and obesity. Observational studies have shown links between short sleep duration with weight gain. However, the findings from longitudinal studies in adults are conflicting. This review aimed to examine the effectiveness of experimental sleep restriction on adult body weight.

Method

A systematic search was undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL (Cochrane center register of controlled trials) to identify experimental studies examining the effectiveness of sleep restriction on body weight, and search period was from January 2005 to June 2018. Meta-analysis was applied by using the random model.

Results

A total of 275 adults from six experimental studies were included. The pooled standard mean difference in body weight and body fat was 0.44 (95% CI − 0.13 to 1.02) (Z = 1.51, p > 0.05) and 0.35 kg (95% CI − 0.19 to 0.88) (Z = 1.27, p > 0.05), respectively. The experimental sleep restriction did not result in significant differences in adult body weight or body fat. Subgroup analysis showed that there were differences in weight gain between genders and races.

Conclusion

The finding from this review cannot support the hypothesis from observational studies that short sleep leads to weight gain.

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Funding

The work was supported by the grant from the Ministry of Education’s Humanities and Social Sciences Research Project (No. 18YJA630015).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All reviewers entered every step to ensure the security and completeness of the data, if there was a disagreement, discussing together or assessing by the third reviewer to resolve.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jingmin Cheng.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: search strategy used in the Ovid MEDLINE January 2005–June 2018

  1. 1.

    adult$.tw (969812)

  2. 2.

    female$.tw (723552)

  3. 3.

    male$.tw (893686)

  4. 4.

    m?n.tw (1261299)

  5. 5.

    wom?n.tw (923021)

  6. 6.

    or/ 1–5 (3660745)

  7. 7.

    sleep$.tw (138539)

  8. 8.

    (sleep adj3 duration$).tw (6304)

  9. 9.

    (sleep$ adj3 tim$).tw (10550)

  10. 10.

    (bedtime or bed tim$ or time in bed).tw (4974)

  11. 11.

    (sleep$ adj3 hour$).tw (3771)

  12. 12.

    night rest.tw (53)

  13. 13.

    or/7–12 (141267)

  14. 14.

    randomi?ed.tw (471727)

  15. 15.

    non randomi?ed.tw (8828)

  16. 16.

    clinical trial.tw (101372)

  17. 17.

    randomi?ed controlled trial.pt (467664)

  18. 18.

    controlled clinical trial.pt (92598)

  19. 19.

    experiment$ study.tw (1523737)

  20. 20.

    (pre-post or prepost or pre post).tw (6905)

  21. 21.

    (posttest or post test).tw (14669)

  22. 22.

    (pretest or pretest).tw (13928)

  23. 23.

    before after.tw (3683)

  24. 24.

    (qua?i-randomi?ed or qua?irandomi?ed).tw (3589)

  25. 25.

    quasiexperimental study.tw (125)

  26. 26.

    or/14–25 (2281151)

  27. 27.

    weight (914152)

  28. 28.

    exp weight loss/ (37322)

  29. 29.

    (weight loss$ or weight-loss$).tw (66114)

  30. 30.

    (weight adj3 reduc$).tw (27861)

  31. 31.

    exp BMI/ (101940)

  32. 32.

    exp body mass index/ (11048)

  33. 33.

    or/ 27–32 (978486)

  34. 34.

    apn?ea.ti (20146)

  35. 35.

    sleep apn?ea.ti (17399)

  36. 36.

    study protocol.ti (5120)

  37. 37.

    (sleep$ adj1 disorder$).ti (5190)

  38. 38.

    OSA.ti (614)

  39. 39.

    or/34–38 (28061)

  40. 40.

    6 AND 13 AND 26 AND 33 NOT 39 (337)

Appendix 2: data extraction form

Administration details
  Study ID (last name of the first author and publication date)  
  Title of the article  
  Country  
  Language  
Study details
  Aim of the study  
  Study design  
  Setting of the study  
  Duration of the study  
Methods  
  Randomization  
  Allocation  
  Blinding  
  Notes  
Participants characteristics
  Patient baseline characteristics Total Intervention group Control (no supplement) Difference between the groups
  Number randomized     
  Number analyzed     
  Age     
  Gender (M/F), n (%)     
  Weight measure     
  BMI level     
Interventions/comparators
  Intervention type
  Intervention description  
  Who delivered the intervention  
  Who else also involved the intervention?  
Control description
Follow-up
  Duration of the intervention
  Numbers of participants dropped out of the study (%) Original number Final number Reasons
  Time of follow-up
  Numbers of participants dropped out during follow-up (%) Original number Final number Reasons
Outcome measure and assessment
  Outcome measure method Details:
  Outcome evaluation method Self-report or observed measure Details
  Outcome effect
Mean change difference with 95% CI
Intervention group Control group
Analyzed participants number (total) Mean change (95% CI) Analyzed participants number (total) Mean change (95% CI)
  Comments:

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Yu, H., Lu, J., Jia, P. et al. Experimental sleep restriction effect on adult body weight: a meta-analysis. Sleep Breath 23, 1341–1350 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01828-0

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Keywords

  • Sleep
  • Adult
  • Body weight
  • Meta-analysis