It was shown in a previous cohort study that men with internal carotid artery (ICA) plaque, defined as focal wall thickness of ≥ 1.5 mm, had a threefold higher risk of stroke than those without plaque. We examined the relationship between arousal indices and sleep stages in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and carotid atherosclerosis.
Carotid atherosclerosis severity was evaluated using the maximal carotid wall intima-media thickness of the ICA (ICA-maxIMT) and plaque in 83 patients with OSAS.
The ICA-maxIMT values were positively correlated with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (ρ = 0.294, P = 0.007), arousal index (ρ = 0.289, P = 0.008), oxygen desaturation index (ρ = 0.298, P = 0.006), percentage of visually scored total sleep time spent in nocturnal oxygen saturation < 90% (SpO2 < 90%) (ρ = 0.246, P = 0.025), and the percentage of visually scored total sleep time spent in non-REM sleep stage 1 (ρ = 0.326, P = 0.003) and were negatively correlated with the percentage of visually scored total sleep time spent in non-REM sleep stages 2 and 3. Arousal index, diabetes mellitus, and age were found to be independent predictors of ICA plaque presence (OR 1.052, P = 0.003; OR 8.705, P = 0.026; OR 1.064, P = 0.023, respectively).
Several PSG variables that are indicative of sleep fragmentation, sleep disordered breathing, and poor sleep quality correlated with the occurrence of atherosclerosis, but total arousal index was the only independent predictive factor.
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We would like to thank Ms. Akiko Sato, the polysomnographer, for recording and analyzing the PSG data.
The study was approved by the ethical committee of Tokyo Women’s Medical University, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Suzuki, M., Shimamoto, K., Sekiguchi, H. et al. Arousal index as a marker of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath 23, 87–94 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-018-1664-0
- Arousal index
- Sleep stage
- Carotid atherosclerosis
- Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome