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What sleep behaviors are associated with bruxism in children? A systematic review and meta-analysis



The aim of this article was to assess the sleep behaviors that serve as risk factors related to bruxism in children ages 0 to 12 years by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies.


Seven databases were searched to identify all peer-reviewed articles potentially relevant to the review. Data were pooled for random-effects modeling. Sleep risk factors related to bruxism in this age group are summarized using pooled odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and P values.


Of 5637 initially identified articles, 14 met inclusion criteria. Study qualities of all case-control studies were high. Quality of cross-sectional studies was more variable. The pooled ORs, 95% CIs, and P values were as follows: snoring (2.86, 1.85–4.42, <0.0001), mouth breathing (1.51, 1.04–2.18, 0.029), restless sleep (2.31, 1.89–2.83, <0.0001), drooling (1.79, 1.07–2.97, 0.026), stomach position during sleep (1.70, 1.0–2.39, 0.003), and inadequate sleep time (2.56, 1.48–4.43, 0.001).


Snoring, mouth breathing, restless sleep, drooling, stomach position during sleep, and lack of sleep were the risk factors related to bruxism in children.

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Odds ratio


Confidence interval




Newcastle-Ottawa scale


Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses


Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York


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Correspondence to Jie Qiu.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Guo, H., Wang, T., Li, X. et al. What sleep behaviors are associated with bruxism in children? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Breath 21, 1013–1023 (2017).

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  • Sleep
  • Bruxism
  • Children
  • Systematic review
  • Meta-analysis