Objective adherence to positive airway pressure therapy in an Australian paediatric cohort
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This study aimed to objectively measure adherence (compliance) and effectiveness of CPAP and BiLevel pressure support in an Australian paediatric population and determine factors associated with adherence outcomes.
Data was collected as part of routine clinical care from 2011 to 2013. Adherence was recorded by downloads from the PAP device. “Adequate” adherence was defined as ≥4 h/night for 70 % of days used. Effectiveness of therapy was measured by polysomnography (PSG) pre- and post-PAP initiation. One year follow-up was undertaken to determine the long-term utilisation of PAP therapy.
Ninety-nine children were included (55 CPAP, 44 BiLevel). Mean age and BMI z-score were 6.9 ± 5.5 years and 0.1 ± 2.0 for CPAP and 9.8 ± 5.9 years and −0.5 ± 2.6 for BiLevel, respectively. At initial download, adequate adherence was observed in 75 % of CPAP and 91 % of BiLevel users. Mean hours of use (per night) for all nights used was 6.8 ± 2.8 and 9.3 ± 3.6 h, respectively. PSG demonstrated that CPAP use was associated with >60 % decrease in the obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (OAHI, 19.0 ± 18.4 to 2.4 ± 3.1; p < 0.001). BiLevel use was associated with improved baseline SaO2 and TcCO2 (SaO2, 92.5 ± 5.4 % to 95.5 ± 2.9 %; p = 0.001 and reduction in TcCO2, 50.0 ± 10.9 mmHg to 44.8 ± 7.6 mmHg; p = 0.01). At follow-up, 22 (40 %) patients on CPAP and 26 (59 %) on BiLevel continued with therapy, and amongst these, adequate adherence was maintained in 76 % of CPAP and 80 % of Bilevel users.
In this Australian paediatric cohort (predominantly non-obese), adherence with BiLevel was greater than for CPAP. Over half of our population continue to utilise PAP therapy 1 year later, and amongst these cases, adequate adherence was maintained.
KeywordsBilevel CPAP Compliance Non-invasive ventilation NIV OSA
Apnoea hypopnoea index
Bilevel positive airway pressure
Body mass index
Children’s Hospital at Westmead
Continuous positive airway pressure
Non-invasive positive airway pressure
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Positive airway pressure
Sleep disordered breathing
Dr. Machaalani is supported by the SIDS stampede.
Compliance with ethical standards
No funding was received for this research.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was not obtained from individual participants included in the study since this was a retrospective report and we are reporting de-identified data.
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