Short sleep duration is associated with increased risk of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Chinese early middle-aged females
- 193 Downloads
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and hypertension in a middle-aged Chinese population.
Cross-sectional data of 20,505 individuals aged 35–64 years from Taizhou longitudinal study was used. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of pre-hypertension and hypertension in association with sleep duration.
Short sleep duration was associated with high systolic and diastolic blood pressure in comparison with sleep duration of 7–8 h in females. Short sleep duration was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in females. Age-stratified analysis showed that as compared with sleep duration of 7–8 h, sleep duration <6 h increased risk of hypertension after controlling for multiple covariates with an OR of 1.766 (1.024–2.775) in early middle-aged females of 35–44 years. More importantly, sleeping less than 6 h is associated with increased risk of pre-hypertension in females of this age category, after controlling for multiple covariates with an OR of 1.769 (1.058–2.958).
Sleeping less than 6 h a day is associated with increased risk of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Chinese early middle-aged females. The high-risk populations require sufficient sleep, which could probably prevent the increased risk of pre-hypertension as well as hypertension.
KeywordsSleep duration Pre-hypertension Hypertension Middle-aged population Female
This work was supported by the grants from the International cooperation project of Ministry of Science and Technology (2014DFA32830), the National Basic Research Program (2012CB944600), the National Natural Science Foundation (31171216), and the National Science & Technology Support Program (2011BAI09B00).
Compliance with ethical standards
The International cooperation project of Ministry of Science and Technology provided financial support in the form of (2014DFA32830) funding, the National Basic Research Program provided financial support in the form of (2012CB944600) funding, the National Natural Science Foundation provided financial support in the form of (31171216) funding, and the National Science & Technology Support Program provided financial support in the form of (2011BAI09B00) funding.
The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Written informed consents were obtained from all participants prior to participation, and the Human Ethics Committee of School of Life Science of Fudan University approved the study.
- 2.Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, White IR, Caulfield MJ, Deanfield JE, Smeeth L, Williams B, Hingorani A, Hemingway H (2014) Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 125 million people. The Lancet 383(9932):1899–1911. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)60685-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Xi B, Zhao X, Chandak GR, Shen Y, Cheng H, Hou D, Wang X, Mi J (2013) Influence of obesity on association between genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies and hypertension risk in Chinese children. American journal of hypertension 26(8):990–996. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt046 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Gangwisch JE, Heymsfield SB, Boden-Albala B, Buijs RM, Kreier F, Pickering TG, Rundle AG, Zammit GK, Malaspina D (2006) Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hypertension 47(5):833–839. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000217362.34748.e0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Cappuccio FP, Stranges S, Kandala NB, Miller MA, Taggart FM, Kumari M, Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Brunner EJ, Marmot MG (2007) Gender-specific associations of short sleep duration with prevalent and incident hypertension: the Whitehall II Study. Hypertension 50(4):693–700. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.095471 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Stranges S, Dorn JM, Cappuccio FP, Donahue RP, Rafalson LB, Hovey KM, Freudenheim JL, Kandala N-B, Miller MA, Trevisan M (2010) A population-based study of reduced sleep duration and hypertension: the strongest association may be in premenopausal women. Journal of Hypertension 28(5):896–902. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328335d076 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Stranges S, Dorn JM, Shipley MJ, Kandala NB, Trevisan M, Miller MA, Donahue RP, Hovey KM, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG, Cappuccio FP (2008) Correlates of short and long sleep duration: a cross-cultural comparison between the United Kingdom and the United States: the Whitehall II Study and the Western New York Health Study. American journal of epidemiology 168(12):1353–1364. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn337 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Guo X, Zheng L Fau - Wang J, Wang J Fau - Zhang X, Zhang X Fau - Zhang X, Zhang X Fau - Li J, Li J Fau - Sun Y, Sun Y (2013) Epidemiological evidence for the link between sleep duration and high blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine 14(4):324–332Google Scholar
- 21.Gangwisch, JE (2014) A review of evidence for the link between sleep duration and hypertension. Am J Hypertens 27(10):1235–42Google Scholar
- 28.Boyd A, Van de Velde S, Vilagut G, de Graaf R, O′Neill S, Florescu S, Alonso J, Kovess-Masfety V (2015) Gender differences in mental disorders and suicidality in Europe: Results from a large cross-sectional population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders 173:245–254. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.de Graaf R, ten Have M, van Gool C, van Dorsselaer S (2012) Prevalence of mental disorders and trends from 1996 to 2009. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47(2):203–213. doi: 10.1007/s00127-010-0334-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Harrell S, Davis D, Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (1993) Chinese families in the Post-Mao Era. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar