Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 267–274 | Cite as

Nocturnal change of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in children with snoring

  • Athanasios G. KaditisEmail author
  • Emmanouel I. Alexopoulos
  • Efthimia Kalampouka
  • Fotini Hatzi
  • Ioanna Karadonta
  • Theodoros Kyropoulos
  • Dimitrios G. Kaditis
  • Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
  • George A. Syrogiannopoulos
Original Article


Hypoxia promotes adherence of leukocytes to endothelial cells by inducing expression of adhesion molecules like intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Increased serum levels of circulating ICAM-1 (cICAM-1) have been reported in adults with sleep apnea and associated hypoxemia. This investigation assessed the hypothesis that the overnight change of cICAM-1 levels in children with snoring is correlated with the severity of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Evening and morning serum levels of cICAM-1 were measured in children with snoring referred for polysomnography. Twenty-five children with an apnea–hypopnea index greater than or equal to 5 episodes/h (5.5 ± 1.8 years), 30 subjects with an index less than 5 and greater than 1 (6.3 ± 2 years), and 19 children with an index less than or equal to 1 (7.1 ± 3 years) were recruited. Overnight change in cICAM-1 (log-transformed ratio of morning-to-evening levels) was similar in subjects with an apnea–hypopnea index greater than or equal to 5 episodes/h compared to those with an index less than 5 and greater than 1 or to children with an index less than or equal to 1 (−0.001 ± 0.08 vs −0.03 ± 0.09 vs −0.06 ± 0.1; p > 0.05). When multiple regression analysis was applied, apnea–hypopnea index, respiratory arousal index, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin nadir were not significant predictors of overnight change in cICAM-1 levels. Thus, in children with snoring, overnight change in cICAM-1 levels is not related to severity of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing.


Atherosclerosis Inflammation Intercellular adhesion molecules Obstructive sleep apnea Snoring 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios G. Kaditis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Emmanouel I. Alexopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Efthimia Kalampouka
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fotini Hatzi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ioanna Karadonta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Theodoros Kyropoulos
    • 2
  • Dimitrios G. Kaditis
    • 2
  • Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
    • 2
  • George A. Syrogiannopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Thessaly School of MedicineLarissaGreece
  2. 2.Sleep Disorders LaboratoryUniversity of Thessaly School of MedicineLarissaGreece
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsLarissa University HospitalLarissaGreece

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