Impact of different elicitors on grapevine leaf metabolism monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy
Grapevine protection is an important issue in viticulture. To reduce pesticide use, sustainable disease control strategies are proposed, including a promising alternative method based on the elicitor-triggered stimulation of the grapevine natural defense responses. However, detailed investigations are necessary to characterize the impact of such defense induction on the primary metabolism.
Our aim was to use a metabolomics approach to assess the impact on grapevine of different elicitors dependent on the salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. For this purpose, leaves of grapevine foliar cuttings were treated with methyl jasmonate, acibenzolar-S-methyl or phosphonates.
According to the elicitor, common and discriminating metabolites were elucidated using 1H NMR measurements and principal component analysis.
A wide range of compounds including carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, phenolics and amines were identified. The score plots obtained by combining PC1 versus PC2 and PC1 versus PC3 allowed a clear separation of samples, so metabolite fingerprinting showed an extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways after elicitation.
The methods applied were found to be accurate for the rapid determination and differential characterization of plant samples based on their metabolic composition. These investigations can be very useful because the application of plant defense stimulators is gaining greater importance as an alternative strategy to pesticides in the vineyard.
KeywordsMetabolomic analysis Vitis vinifera MeJA ASM Phosphonates Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
We wish to thank Sébastien Gambier for taking care of the plants, and Annick Moing and Catherine Deborde for their pertinent advice on the NMR protocol extraction method. The work was supported by the Bordeaux Metabolome Facility and MetaboHUB (ANR-11-INBS-0010 project). We thank the French Government and the French Embassy in Poland for their financial support.
SC and MFCC conceived and designed the research. AlB, AnB, SC and MFCC conducted the experiments. AlB, GDC, LG, ILM and TR performed the metabolomics study and data analysis. AlB, JMM, AS and SC wrote and/or revised the manuscript. All authors read and accepted the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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