, 15:3 | Cite as

Juice Index: an integrated Sauvignon blanc grape and wine metabolomics database shows mainly seasonal differences

  • Farhana R. PinuEmail author
  • Sergey Tumanov
  • Claire Grose
  • Victoria Raw
  • Abby Albright
  • Lily Stuart
  • Silas G. Villas-Boas
  • Damian Martin
  • Roger Harker
  • Marc Greven
Original Article



Although Sauvignon Blanc (SB) grapes are cultivated widely throughout New Zealand, wines from the Marlborough region are most famous for their typical varietal combination of tropical and vegetal aromas. These wines differ in composition from season to season as well as among locations within the region, which makes the continual production of good quality wines challenging. Here, we developed a unique database of New Zealand SB grape juices and wines to develop tools to help winemakers to make blending decisions and assist in the development of new wine styles.


About 400 juices were collected from different regions in New Zealand over three harvest seasons (2011–2013), which were then fermented under controlled conditions using a commercial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. Comprehensive metabolite profiling of these juices and wines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was combined with their detailed oenological parameters and associated meteorological data.


These combined metabolomics data clearly demonstrate that seasonal variation is more prominent than regional difference in both SB grape juices and wines, despite almost universal use of vineyard irrigation to mitigate seasonal rainfall and evapotranspiration differences, Additionally, we identified a group of juice metabolites that play central roles behind these variations, which may represent chemical signatures for juice and wine quality assessment.


This database is the first of its kind in the world to be available for the wider scientific community and offers potential as a predictive tool for wine quality and innovation when combined with mathematical modelling.


Seasonal difference Aroma compounds Mass spectrometry Vineyard management Winemaking Terroir Chemical signature 



We thank all the wine companies for their collaboration in this work. We are grateful to all the people involved from Goddard lab, University of Auckland (UoA) and from Plant and Food Research Ltd (PFR), Blenheim during the sample collection. We thank the Centre for Genomics Proteomics and Metabolomics (CGPM), UoA for giving us access to the GC-MS instrumentation. Acknowledgement is also due to Sharlene Haycock (PFR), Elizabeth MacKenzie (UoA), Erica Zarate (UoA) and Francesca Casu (UoA) for their help with juice and wine analysis. We also thank PFR’s business managers, Claire Hall, Deborah Tod and Megan Jones for their help with the project management. We are also thankful to Warrick Nelson, Andrew McLachlan and Science Publications team of PFR for their comments on the manuscript.

Author contributions

The project was conceived as part of Sauvignon blanc II programme and RH was the milestone leader. MG organised and supervised the grape juice sample collection with the help from VR. CG and LS made all the wines. FP and ST carried out metabolomics analysis (including data mining) at SVB’s laboratory at the University of Auckland. AA determined the oenological properties of grape juices and wines. MG, VR and FP collated all the data. FP analysed the data. FP and MG wrote the manuscript. All the authors revised and/or agreed on the final contents of the manuscript.


This project was part of Sauvignon blanc II programme funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE), New Zealand Winegrowers Inc and Plant and Food Research Ltd (PFR) (contract C11X1005).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11306_2018_1469_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4961 KB)
11306_2018_1469_MOESM2_ESM.csv (21 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (CSV 21 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Viticulture and Oenology GroupThe New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research LtdBlenheimNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Food InnovationThe New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research LtdAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.Victor Chang Cardiac Research InstituteDarlinghurstAustralia

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