Characterization of trotter horses urine metabolome by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Abstract

Background

Metabolomics has been recognized as a powerful approach for disease screening. In order to highlight potential health issues in subjects, a key factor is the possibility to compare quantitatively the metabolome of their biofluids with reference values from healthy individuals. Such efforts towards the systematic characterization of the metabolome of biofluids in perfect health conditions, far from concluded for humans, have barely begun on horses.

Objectives

The present work attempts, for the first time, to give reference quantitative values for the molecules mostly represented in the urine metabolome of horses at rest and under light training, as observable by 1H-NMR.

Methods

The metabolome of ten trotter horses, four male and six female, ranging from 3 to 8 years of age, has been observed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy before and after three training sessions.

Results

We could characterize and quantify 54 molecules in trotter horse urine, originated from diet, protein digestion, energy generation or gut-microbial co-metabolism.

Conclusion

We were able to describe how gender, age and exercise affected their concentration, by means of a two steps protocol based on univariate and robust principal component analysis.

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Acknowledgements

Chenglin Zhu gratefully acknowledges financial support from Chinese Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201606910076).

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Authors

Contributions

VF, FL, MB and LL conceived and designed research. VF, FL and MB collected the samples. CZ and LL performed metabolomics analysis. CZ, LL and FL wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luca Laghi.

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Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Cite this article

Zhu, C., Faillace, V., Laus, F. et al. Characterization of trotter horses urine metabolome by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Metabolomics 14, 106 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-018-1403-3

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Keywords

  • Trotter horse
  • Urine
  • Metabolomics
  • 1H-NMR