, 14:106 | Cite as

Characterization of trotter horses urine metabolome by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  • Chenglin Zhu
  • Vanessa Faillace
  • Fulvio Laus
  • Marilena Bazzano
  • Luca LaghiEmail author
Original Article



Metabolomics has been recognized as a powerful approach for disease screening. In order to highlight potential health issues in subjects, a key factor is the possibility to compare quantitatively the metabolome of their biofluids with reference values from healthy individuals. Such efforts towards the systematic characterization of the metabolome of biofluids in perfect health conditions, far from concluded for humans, have barely begun on horses.


The present work attempts, for the first time, to give reference quantitative values for the molecules mostly represented in the urine metabolome of horses at rest and under light training, as observable by 1H-NMR.


The metabolome of ten trotter horses, four male and six female, ranging from 3 to 8 years of age, has been observed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy before and after three training sessions.


We could characterize and quantify 54 molecules in trotter horse urine, originated from diet, protein digestion, energy generation or gut-microbial co-metabolism.


We were able to describe how gender, age and exercise affected their concentration, by means of a two steps protocol based on univariate and robust principal component analysis.


Trotter horse Urine Metabolomics 1H-NMR 



Chenglin Zhu gratefully acknowledges financial support from Chinese Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201606910076).

Author contributions

VF, FL, MB and LL conceived and designed research. VF, FL and MB collected the samples. CZ and LL performed metabolomics analysis. CZ, LL and FL wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11306_2018_1403_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4822 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Centre of FoodomicsUniversity of BolognaCesenaItaly
  2. 2.School of Biosciences and Veterinary MedicineUniversity of CamerinoMatelicaItaly

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