The aim of the present study was to evaluate if guanine-based purines may affect the gastric motor function in mouse. Thus, the influence of guanosine on the gastric emptying rate in vivo was determined and its effects on spontaneous gastric mechanical activity, detected as changes of the intraluminal pressure, were analyzed in vitro before and after different treatments. Gastric gavage of guanosine (1.75–10 mg/kg) delayed the gastric emptying. Guanosine (30 μM–1 mM) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated stomach, which was not affected by the inhibition of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase enzyme by 4′-deaza-1′-aza-2′-deoxy-1′-(9-methylene)-immucillin-H. The inhibitory response was antagonized by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine, a membrane nucleoside transporter inhibitor, but not affected by 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, or by tetrodotoxin, a blocker of neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channels. Moreover, guanosine-induced effects persisted in the presence of 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase or tetraethylammonium, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, but they were progressively reduced by increasing concentrations of 2′5′dideoxyadenosine, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. Lastly, the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), measured by ELISA, in gastric full thickness preparations were increased by guanosine. In conclusion, our data indicate that, in mouse, guanosine is able to modulate negatively the gastric motor function, reducing gastric emptying and inducing muscular relaxation. The latter is dependent by its cellular uptake and involves adenylyl cyclase activation and increase in cAMP intracellular levels, while it is independent on neural action potentials, adenosine receptors, and K+ channel activation.
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This work was supported by a grant from Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca Scientifica—Italy.
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Zizzo, M.G., Mulè, F., Amato, A. et al. Guanosine negatively modulates the gastric motor function in mouse. Purinergic Signalling 9, 655–661 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11302-013-9378-z
- Endoluminal pressure
- Muscular relaxation
- Gastric emptying