Tree Genetics & Genomes

, 14:8 | Cite as

Colonization history of Scots pine in Eastern Europe and North Asia based on mitochondrial DNA variation

  • Vladimir L. SemerikovEmail author
  • Svetlana A. Semerikova
  • Yuliya A. Putintseva
  • Vyacheslav V. Tarakanov
  • Irina V. Tikhonova
  • Anatoliy I. Vidyakin
  • Natalia V. Oreshkova
  • Konstantin V. Krutovsky
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Population structure


During Quaternary glaciations, the ranges of Northern Eurasia forest species periodically experienced contraction followed by subsequent re-colonizations in the interglacial intervals. However, unlike the broadleaf trees of temperate forests, taiga species seem not to have retreated fully to southern regions in unfavorable periods and possibly survived at mid-latitudes in multiple refugia. Here, we report a study of genetic variation of three mitochondrial DNA markers in 90 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) located from Eastern Europe to Eastern Siberia. The geographic distribution of seven mitotypes demonstrated the split between western and eastern populations approximately along the 38th meridian. Genetic diversity in the western part was significantly higher than in the eastern one. Five mitotypes were western- and one eastern-specific. One mitotype was common in both regions, but in the eastern part it occurred only in the South Urals and adjacent areas. The geographic structure in the mitotype distribution supports a hypothesis of post-glacial re-colonization of the studied territory from the European and Ural refugia.


Mitochondrial DNA Mitotype Phylogeography Pinus sylvestris Refugia Scots pine 



The authors further acknowledge EG Phylippov, SN Sannikov, KG Zatsepina, S. Jamiyansuren, AK Ekart, LI Kalchenko, and RV Rogovtsev for the material collection and OS Dymshakova, NV Semerikov and MA Polezhaeva for the laboratory assistance. The authors thank two reviewers and the Associate Editor for useful comments, corrections, and suggestions that greatly helped us improve our manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

VLS, VVT, AIV, and KVK collected the samples, generated and analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript. SAS and IVT established the experiment, isolated and genotyped DNA, and helped with the sample collection. YAP and NVO helped with marker development, sequence analysis, data interpretation, and manuscript editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This study was funded by the research grants No. 16-04-00607 from the Russian Basic Research Foundation and No. 14.Y26.31.0004 from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Data archiving statement

A list of the population samples including mitotype frequency is provided in Supplementary material Table S1. Sequences used in the study were deposited in GeneBank (KY302807, KY302806, and KY302808).

Supplementary material

11295_2017_1222_MOESM1_ESM.docx (6.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 6888 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir L. Semerikov
    • 1
    Email author
  • Svetlana A. Semerikova
    • 1
  • Yuliya A. Putintseva
    • 2
  • Vyacheslav V. Tarakanov
    • 3
  • Irina V. Tikhonova
    • 3
    • 4
  • Anatoliy I. Vidyakin
    • 5
  • Natalia V. Oreshkova
    • 2
    • 4
  • Konstantin V. Krutovsky
    • 2
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Institute of Plant and Animal EcologyUral Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesEkaterinburgRussia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Genomics, Genome Research and Education CenterSiberian Federal UniversityKrasnoyarskRussia
  3. 3.West-Siberian Branch of the V.N. Sukachev Institute of ForestFederal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  4. 4.Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Selection, V.N. Sukachev Institute of ForestFederal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center” of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesKrasnoyarskRussia
  5. 5.Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific CenterUral Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesKirovRussia
  6. 6.Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree BreedingGeorg-August University of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  7. 7.Laboratory of Population Genetics, N. I. Vavilov Institute of General GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  8. 8.Department of Ecosystem Science and ManagementTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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