Rangewide population differentiation and population substructure in Quercus rubra L.
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Genetic diversity and differentiation in Quercus rubra remains undescribed for most of the native range. Using 10 highly informative gSSR markers, we genotyped 23 populations (980 trees), from across the native range, at local and rangewide spatial scales. We used a hierarchical Bayesian method to generate population-specific F st estimates. The posterior probabilities of 3 spatial and 19 climate factors revealed that latitude and precipitation in the warmest quarter were the only plausible models for population-specific F st estimates. Population-specific F st estimates increased as a linear function of population latitude (R 2 = 0.745, p < 0.0001), the expected effect of postglacial range expansion. Measures of shared ancestry (pairwise local differentiation) among populations sampled at fine spatial scales within locations also increased with the latitude of the location (R 2 = 0.495, p = 0.014), suggesting an influence on differentiation that could not be attributed to postglacial range expansion. As precipitation in the warmest quarter drives radial growth rate in this species, we propose that growth rate influences generation time, which determines the time required to re-establish migration-drift equilibrium among local regenerating stands. Population substructure analysis detected four groups, only one of which was geographically coherent. Most other populations were moderately admixed. Sampling designs that include both fine and coarse spatial scales can begin to disentangle the effect of past range expansions from the effect of recent disturbances. Accounting for population substructure in this species will require additional studies involving functional genes, interspecific interactions, and species distribution modeling.
KeywordsQuercus rubra Population differentiation Life history Disturbance
We appreciate the field assistance of Inna Birchenko, Yi Feng, Tim McCleary, Rodney Robichaud, and Paul Goedde at the Isle Royale site and James Schmierer and Oliver Gailing at the Michigan Tech site. We thank Brent Harker and the Notre Dame Genomics Core facility for genotyping assistance and the National Park Service for permitting us to take samples on Isle Royale. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (IOS1025974), and SH was partly supported as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS), through NSF Award #DBI-1300426, with support from The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Data archiving statement
We will deposit the primary data underlying these analyses (microsatellite genotypes) in the Dryad database, upon acceptance of this paper. Accession numbers for Q. rubra microsatellite marker sequence data are deposited in GenBank and reported in the references given.
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