Genetic diversity and population structure of pummelo (Citrus maxima) germplasm in China

  • Huiwen Yu
  • Xiaoming Yang
  • Fei Guo
  • Xiaolin Jiang
  • Xiuxin Deng
  • Qiang Xu
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Population structure


Pummelo (Citrus maxima) is one of the basic species of Citrus. It has been cultivated for about 4000 years in China, and therefore, there are abundant germplasm during the long time of culture. However, there is still a lack of a detailed study of the genetic characteristics of pummelo population. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure among 274 pummelo accessions collected in China were analyzed using 31 nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) markers. The observed heterozygosity was calculated as 0.325 and genetic differentiation Fst as 0.077. Genetic structure analysis divided the whole germplasm into three subpopulations, Pop-a, Pop-b, and Pop-c. Pop-a was composed of accessions mostly from Southeast China, Pop-b was composed of accessions from the central region of South China, and Pop-c was composed of accessions from Southwest China. Meanwhile, the analysis of principal coordinate analysis and neighbor-join tree supported the viewpoint of three subpopulations, and then the possible dispersal routes of pummelos in China were proposed. This study provides an insight into the genetic diversity, facilitates future genome-wide association studies, and promotes the breeding program of pummelo as well.


Pummelo Genetic diversity Population structure Nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) 



We are grateful to the staff from the Citrus Experiment Stations of the MATS program of the Ministry of Agriculture of China (CARS-27); Dong Jiang and Shiping Zhu from Citrus Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing; Guangyan Zhong from Institution of Fruit Tree Research, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou; Shuizhi Yang from Hunan Horticultural Research Institute; Jianqiang Yue from Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Cash Crops, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences; and China Agriculture Research System. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31572105), the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201303093), the key project of Hubei provincial Natural Science Foundation (2015CFA031), and the Huazhong Agricultural University Scientific & Technological Self-Innovation Foundation.

Data archiving statement

All data are provided as supplementary material.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11295_2017_1133_Fig6_ESM.jpg (3 kb)
Fig. S1

Individuals from the hybrid zone (H) showed combinatory pattern of SSR loci between individuals from Southeast (E) and Southwest China (W), H1, H2, H3, H4, were from the hybrid zone, E1, E2, E3, E4 were from Southeast China and W1, W2, W3, W4 were from Southwest China. H1 for ‘Dangyang2’ (AN 51), E1 for ‘Shimennongjiayou’ (AN 85), W1 for ‘Guang-37’ (AN 271), H2 for ‘Shawanyou’ (AN 176), E2 for ‘Jiashiliu’ (AN 170), W2 for ‘RL-04’ (AN 7), H3 for ‘Ciliboluoxiangyou2’ (AN 238), E3 for ‘Taoximiyou’ (AN 129), W3 for ‘Fengduhongxinyou1’ (AN 161), H4 for ‘Sandouban’ (AN 243), E4 for ‘Tuyou’ (AN 92) and W4 for ‘Fengjiekuiyou’ (AN 96). (JPEG 2 kb)

11295_2017_1133_MOESM1_ESM.tif (3.1 mb)
High Resolution (TIFF 3190 kb)
11295_2017_1133_MOESM2_ESM.docx (41 kb)
Table S1 Names of the whole 274 pummelo accessions, those samples with the same name were distinguished by the accession number (AN). (DOCX 41 kb)
11295_2017_1133_MOESM3_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Table S2 Names of the 31 nSSR markers, pairwise sequence and the chromosome location of each marker (Xu et al. 2013). (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huiwen Yu
    • 1
  • Xiaoming Yang
    • 1
  • Fei Guo
    • 1
  • Xiaolin Jiang
    • 1
  • Xiuxin Deng
    • 1
  • Qiang Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education)Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

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