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Eastern filbert blight disease resistance from Corylus americana ‘Rush’ and selection ‘Yoder #5’ maps to linkage group 7

Abstract

Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala, is a serious threat to the hazelnut industry in the Pacific Northwest. EFB is endemic in eastern North America where it occasionally produces small cankers on the wild American hazelnut (Corylus americana). In contrast, most cultivars of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) are susceptible. Genetic resistance is the most promising disease control method and is an objective of the Oregon State University hazelnut breeding program. ‘Gasaway’ resistance, which is governed by a dominant allele at a single locus, has been extensively used in the program. However, ‘Gasaway’ and some of its offspring have been infected by EFB isolates from New Jersey, Minnesota, and Michigan. Efforts to create new cultivars with durable EFB resistance include identifying and studying new resistance sources. In this study, resistant accessions C. americana ‘Rush’ and interspecific hybrid selection ‘Yoder #5’ were crossed with susceptible C. avellana selections and the resulting segregating seedling populations were inoculated by either exposure of potted trees under a structure topped with diseased branches or field exposure supplemented by tying diseased branches to each tree. Disease response was scored when cankers were visible 20 months after inoculation. Resistance from both sources segregated in a 1:1 ratio, indicating control by a single locus and a dominant allele for resistance. DNA extracted from the seedlings was amplified with previously mapped microsatellite markers. Resistance from both C. americana ‘Rush’ and ‘Yoder #5’ was placed on linkage group 7 in the same position as resistance from C. avellana ‘Ratoli.’ Linked microsatellite markers B753, GB372, and B509 will be useful for marker-assisted selection and the pyramiding of genes for durable EFB resistance. Assessing response to EFB is challenging, whether the plants are inoculated under a structure topped with diseased wood or in a humidity chamber in the greenhouse, or by exposure in the field. The pathogen has a 2-year life cycle, and there is a 15-month wait between inoculation and symptom expression. A small number of escapes is commonly encountered, and resistant plants occasionally develop small cankers. Our approach of studying segregation ratios and then mapping with microsatellite markers should be a useful approach for disease resistance studies in many tree crops.

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Acknowledgements

Funding for this research was provided by the Oregon Hazelnut Commission, Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Hatch Act Funds, a specific cooperative agreement with USDA, USDA-NIFA Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant 2014-67013-22421, and USDA-NIFA Specialty Crops Research Initiative Competitive Grant 2009-51181-06028.

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Correspondence to S. A. Mehlenbacher.

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Communicated by A. G. Abbott

Data archiving statement

New DNA sequences containing microsatellites were deposited in GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). The markers and accession numbers are GB372 (KT943800), GB822 (KT943828), and GB642 (KU306297). The sequences of previously published microsatellite-containing sequences were also deposited in GenBank, and the accession numbers are listed in the cited literature.

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Bhattarai, G., Mehlenbacher, S.A. & Smith, D.C. Eastern filbert blight disease resistance from Corylus americana ‘Rush’ and selection ‘Yoder #5’ maps to linkage group 7. Tree Genetics & Genomes 13, 45 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-017-1129-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-017-1129-9

Keywords

  • Disease resistance
  • Eastern filbert blight
  • Hazelnut
  • Corylus avellana
  • Linkage mapping