Genetic characterization and diversity among avocado (Persea americana Mill.) genotypes from INIA-CENIAP, Venezuela

  • H. Ferrer Pereira
  • I. Perez Almeida
  • M. Raymúndez Urrutia
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Germplasm Diversity


Studies on Persea americana have been addressed in different ways with biochemical and molecular techniques. Microsatellites are able to detect multiple alleles for particular loci and are therefore a useful tool to study genealogical relationships, population structures and genetic mapping. Ninety-six samples from 49 cultivars including three horticultural groups and hybrids were collected from the avocado germplasm bank at INIA-CENIAP (Venezuela). A modified DNA extraction protocol was performed. Forty microsatellites were selected from previous references, PCR amplifications were performed, and presence/absence, size, and number of alleles were evaluated on polyacrylamide gels. Attributes for polymorphic alleles were analyzed with POPGENE, and genetic diversity was calculated by effective sample size, number of alleles per locus (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Shannon information index (In), observed heterozygosis (H), expected heterozygosity (He), Wright’s fixation index (Fis), and allele frequencies. Only 14 primers were amplified, and AVT106 primer resulted monomorphic. Unique genotypes for each sample were obtained. Nine loci showed allele patterns that can be useful for taxonomic identification of cultivars or varieties. Comparing values of Fis with Ho and He, we found a direct relationship where low heterozygosis alleles identified in the population may affect the expected level. Allele frequencies ranged from 0.5632 to 0.0105. For all loci, at least one rare allele was observed. With the available information from genetic analysis, an identifying system was implemented for selected avocado cultivars maintained at the INIA-CENIAP Venezuelan germplasm bank on the basis of molecular data.


Biotechnology Mexican Guatemalan Allele frequency Heterozygosis 



Financial support for this research was partially provided by the Venezuelan National Found for Science and Technology (FONACIT; grant number 2009000563), Postgrado en Botánica from Universidad Central de Venezuela and Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela “Dr. Tobías Lasser” (FIBV). We gratefully appreciate all the technical and logistic support from Ing. Enio Soto, avocado collection curator, and the Agricultural Biotechnology Unit from INIA-CENIAP, Maracay.

Data archiving statement

All collected data from this research are not submitted to any public database instead of authors’ considerations and research methods involved here. MICROSATELLITES were not sequenced due to the lack of enough financial support, but were used as a presence/absence character. If any researcher would consider he/she needs raw or processed data to conduct further analysis can make a database request to correspondence author and all asked information will be kindly sent.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Morfoanatomía Vegetal, Centro de Botánica Tropical, Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  2. 2.Unidad de Biotecnología Vegetal, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones AgropecuariasInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones AgrícolasMaracayVenezuela
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Biosistemática y Citogenética Vegetal, Centro de Botánica Tropical, Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  4. 4.Postgrado en Botánica, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela

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