Advertisement

Tree Genetics & Genomes

, 11:96 | Cite as

The effects of genetic diversity, climate and defoliation events on trembling aspen growth performance across Canada

  • Mathieu LatutrieEmail author
  • Pierre Mérian
  • Sandrine Picq
  • Yves Bergeron
  • Francine Tremblay
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Adaptation

Abstract

Tree genetic makeup may provide an important control of growth dynamics; however, no studies have previously attempted to evaluate its effects in natural trembling aspen stands. In this study, we examined the relative contribution of genetics (i.e. clonal diversity, observed heterozygosity) and environmental conditions (i.e. insects, climate) on aspen growth as represented by mean inter-tree correlation (RBAR), tree basal area increment (TBAI) and inter-annual growth variability (MS). We sampled 440 trees in 22 even-aged natural stands dominated by aspen along an east-west continental gradient of decreasing annual precipitation in the Canadian boreal forest. Linear and mixed-effect models tested the relationships between tree growth, genetics and environmental factors. We showed that clonal diversity and number of years with forest tent caterpillar (FTC) defoliation (NFTC) reduced and increased the level of growth synchronicity (RBAR), respectively. Clonal diversity explained 30 % of variation in RBAR among sites. TBAI was positively influenced by high moisture conditions while NFTC and climate explained the variation in MS among trees for each site. No genetic effect could explain either TBAI or the MS variation. Climate and NFTC drive annual growth variability in trembling aspen at stand and subcontinental scales. Tree genetic makeup contributed to these dynamics, the annual growth dynamics of multi-clonal stands being less homogeneous than those of monoclonal stands. Maintaining diverse aspen stands may ensure a wider range of growth responses to environmental variability, which in turn may help maintain resilience of aspen stands under future climate.

Keywords

Climate moisture index Forest tent caterpillar Genetic diversity Heterozygosity Radial growth Trembling aspen 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. E.H. (Ted) Hogg (Northern Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada) for providing information and access to the Climate Impacts on Productivity & Health of Aspen (CIPHA) network in Western Canada and David Gervais (Laurentian Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada) for the fieldwork. We also thank Centre d’Étude de la Forêt (CEF) professionals, especially Melanie Desrochers for providing the map, Marc J. Mazerolle for statistical advice and William F. J. Parsons for careful editing of the manuscript. We also want to thank all of the people that helped by improving the manuscript, especially Dr. Igor Drobyshev and two anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and comments. A Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) strategic grant (NSERC-SPS 380893-09) to Yves Bergeron financially supported this project.

Supplementary material

11295_2015_925_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (212 kb)
ESM 1 (pdf 212 kb)

References

  1. Anyomi KA, Lorenzetti F, Bergeron Y, Leduc A (2014) Stand dynamics, humus type and water balance explain aspen long term productivity across Canada. Forests 62:416–432Google Scholar
  2. Applequist MB (1958) A simple pith locator for use with off-center increment cores. J For 562:141Google Scholar
  3. Arnaud-Haond S, Duarte CM, Alberto F, Serrão EA (2007) Standardizing methods to address clonality in population studies. Mol Ecol 1624:5115–5139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaulieu J, Bousquet J (2010) Facteurs génétiques affectant la variabilité des cernes annuels chez les espéces arborescentes nordiques. In: Payette S, Filion L (eds) La dendroécologie: principes, méthodes et applications. Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec City (QC), Canada, pp 137–163Google Scholar
  5. Becker M (1989) The role of climate on present and past vitality of silver fir forests in the Vosges mountains of northeastern France. Can J For Res 199:1110–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biondi F, Qeadan F (2008) Inequality in paleorecords. Ecology 894:1056–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briffa KR, Jones PD (1990) Basic chronology statistics and assessment. In: Cook ER, Kairiukstis LAE (eds) Methods of dendrochronology: applications in the environmental sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 137–152Google Scholar
  8. Briffa KR, Schweingruber FH, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Harris IC, Shiyatov SG, Vaganov EA, Grudd H (1998) Trees tell of past climates: but are they speaking less clearly today? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353:65–73PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunn AG (2008) A dendrochronology program library in R (dplR). Dendrochronologia 262:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bunn AG, Jansma E, Korpela M, Westfall RD, Baldwin J (2013) Using simulations and data to evaluate mean sensitivity (zeta) as a useful statistic in dendrochronology. Dendrochronologia 313:250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2004) Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociol Methods Res 332:261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Callahan CM, Rowe CA, Ryel RJ, Shaw JD, Madritch MD, Mock KE (2013) Continental-scale assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). J Biogeogr 409:1780–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cole CT, Anderson JE, Lindroth RL, Waller DM (2010) Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). Glob Chang Biol 16:2186–2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook ER (1985) A time series analysis approach to tree ring standardization. PhD thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  15. Cook EK, Kariukstis AL (1990) Methods of dendrochronology—applications in the environmental sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook ER, Pederson N (2010) Uncertainty, emergence, and statistics in dendrochronology. In: Hughes MK, Swetnam TW, Diaz HF (eds) Dendroclimatology: progress and prospects. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, pp 77–112Google Scholar
  17. Cook ER, Peters K (1981) The smoothing spline: a new approach to standardizing forest interior tree-ring width series for dendroclimatic studies. Tree-Ring Bull 41:45–53Google Scholar
  18. Cornelius J (1994) Heritabilities and additive genetic coefficients of variation in forest trees. Can J For Res 242:372–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dayanandan S, Rajora OP, Bawa KS (1998) Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Theor Appl Genet 966–7:950–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeWoody J, Rowe CA, Hipkins VD, Mock KE (2008) “Pando” lives: molecular genetic evidence of a giant aspen clone in central Utah. Am Nat 684:493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dorken ME, Eckert CG (2001) Severely reduced sexual reproduction in northern populations of a clonal plant, Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). J Ecol 893:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drobyshev I, Gewehr S, Berninger F, Bergeron Y (2013) Species-specific growth responses of black spruce and trembling aspen may enhance resilience of boreal forest to climate change. J Ecol 1011:231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Environment Canada (2014) Calculation of the 1971 to 2000 climate normals for Canada. http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_normals/normals_documentation_e.html?docID=1971 (Accessed May 3 2014)
  24. Fox J, Weisberg S (2011) An R companion to applied regression, second edition. Thousand Oaks, California. Available at: http://socserv.socsci.mcmaster.ca/jfox/Books/Companion. (Accessed: February 20 2015)
  25. Frey BR, Lieffers VJ, Hogg EH, Landhäusser SM (2004) Predicting landscape patterns of aspen dieback: mechanisms and knowledge gaps. Can J For Res 347:1379–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Grant MC, Mitton JB, Linhart YB (1992) Even larger organisms. Nature 3606401:216–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gray LK, Gylander T, Mbogga MS, Chen P-Y, Hamann A (2010) Assisted migration to address climate change: recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada. Ecol Appl 215:1591–1603Google Scholar
  29. Gylander T, Hamann A, Brouard JS, Thomas BR (2012) The potential of aspen clonal forestry in Alberta: breeding regions and estimates of genetic gain from selection. PLoS ONE 78, e44303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanson EJ, Azuma DL, Hiserote BA (2003) Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985–2001. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Research Note PNW-RN-533 26p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansson B, Westerberg L (2002) On the correlation between heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations. Mol Ecol 11:2467–2474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hogg EH (1997) Temporal scaling of moisture and the forest-grassland boundary in western Canada. Agric For Meteorol 841–2:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hogg EH (2001) Modeling aspen responses to climatic warming and insect defoliation in western Canada. In: Proceedings of the Sustaining Aspen in Western Landscapes Symposium, Grand Junction, CO (ed). USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-18. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ft. Collins, CO, pp. 325–337Google Scholar
  34. Hogg EHT, Bernier PY (2005) Climate change impacts on drought-prone forests in western Canada. For Chron 815:675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Kochtubajda B (2002a) Growth and dieback of aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects. Can J For Res 325:823–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hogg EH, Hart M, Lieffers VJ (2002b) White tree rings formed in trembling aspen saplings following experimental defoliation. Can J For Res 3211:1929–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Kochtubajda B (2005) Factors affecting interannual variation in growth of western Canadian aspen forests during 1951–2000. Can J For Res 353:610–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Michaelian M (2008) Impacts of a regional drought on the productivity, dieback, and biomass of western Canadian aspen forests. Can J For Res 386:1373–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huang J-G, Stadt KJ, Dawson A, Comeau PG (2013) Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of western Canada. PLoS ONE 810, e77607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jelinski DE, Cheliak WM (1992) Genetic diversity and spatial subdivision of Populus tremuloides (Salicaceae) in a heterogeneous landscape. Am J Bot 797:728–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jump AS, Peñuelas J (2005) Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol Lett 89:1010–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. King GM, Gugerli F, Fonti P, Frank DC (2013) Tree growth response along an elevational gradient: climate or genetics? Oecologia 1734:1587–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kullback S, Leibler RA (1951) On information and sufficiency. Ann Math Stat 22:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. LeBlanc DC (1990) Relationships between breast-height and whole-stem growth indices for red spruce on Whiteface Mountain, New York. Can J For Res 209:1399–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lebourgeois F, Gomez N, Pinto P, Mérian P (2013) Mixed stands reduce Abies alba tree-ring sensitivity to summer drought in the Vosges mountains, western Europe. For Ecol Manag 303:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lemprière T, Bernier PY, Carroll AL, Flannigan MD, Gilsenan RP, McKenney DW, Hogg EH, Pedlar JH, Blain D (2008) The importance of forest sector adaptation to climate change. Information Report NOR-X-416E. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, 78p Google Scholar
  47. Leonelli G, Denneler B, Bergeron Y (2008) Climate sensitivity of trembling aspen radial growth along a productivity gradient in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Can J For Res 385:1211–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li H, Wang X, Hamann A (2010) Genetic adaptation of aspen (Populus tremuloides) populations to spring risk environments: a novel remote sensing approach. Can J For Res 4011:2082–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Little EL (1971) Atlas of United States trees, vol 1, Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC, Miscellaneous Publication 1146, 200 maps Google Scholar
  50. Long JN, Mock K (2012) Changing perspectives on regeneration ecology and genetic diversity in western quaking aspen: implications for silviculture. Can J For Res 4212:2011–2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mazerolle MJ (2013) AICcmodavg: model selection and multimodel inference based on (Q)AIC(c). R package version 1.35. http://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/AICcmodavg/index.html. (Accessed February 20 2015)
  52. Meirmans PG, Van Tienderen PH (2004) Genotype and genodive: two programs for the analysis of genetic diversity of asexual organisms. Mol Ecol Notes 44:792–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mérian P (2012) POINTER and DENDRO—two applications under R software for analyzing tree response to climate using dendroecological approach. Revue Forestière Française 646:789–798Google Scholar
  54. Mérian P, Lebourgeois F (2011) Size-mediated climate–growth relationships in temperate forests: a multi-species analysis. For Ecol Manag 2618:1382–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Michaelian M, Hogg EH, Hall RJ, Arsenault E (2011) Massive mortality of aspen following severe drought along the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest. Glob Chang Biol 176:2084–2094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mittell EA, Nakagawa S, Hadfield JD (2015) Are molecular markers useful predictors of adaptive potential? Ecol Lett 18:772–778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mitton JB, Grant MC (1980) Observations on the ecology and evolution of quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides, in the Colorado Front Range. Am J Bot 202–209Google Scholar
  58. Mitton JB, Grant MC (1984) Associations among protein heterozygosity, growth rate, and developmental homeostasis. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 15:479–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mitton JB, Grant MC (1996) Genetic variation and the natural history of quaking aspen. Bioscience 461:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mock KE, Rowe CA, Hooten MB, Dewoody J, Hipkins VD (2008) Clonal dynamics in western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides). Mol Ecol 1722:4827–4844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moulinier J, Lorenzetti F, Bergeron Y (2014) Growth and mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in response to artificial defoliation. Acta Oecol 550:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Namroud MC, Tremblay F, Bergeron Y (2005) Temporal variation in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) genetic and clonal structures in the mixedwood boreal forest of eastern Canada. Ecoscience 121:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nicotra AB, Atkin OK, Bonser SP, Davidson AM, Finnegan EJ, Mathesius U, Poot P, Purugganan MD, Richards CL, Valladares F, van Kleunen M (2010) Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate. Trends Plant Sci 1512:684–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Osier TL, Lindroth RL (2001) Effects of genotype, nutrient availability, and defoliation on aspen phytochemistry and insect performance. J Chem Ecol 277:1289–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 371:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peterson EB, Peterson NM (1992) Ecology, management, and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the prairie provinces. Forestry Canada Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Center, Canada, Edmonton, Special Report 1. 252p Google Scholar
  67. Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team (2013) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models, R package version 3.1-113. http://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/nlme/index.html. (Accessed: February 20 2015)
  68. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/. (Accessed: February 20 2015)
  69. Rahman MH, Dayanandan S, Rajora OP (2000) Microsatellite DNA markers in Populus tremuloides. Genome 432:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Régnière J, St-Amant R, Béchard A (2013) BioSIM 10 User’s manual, Information Report LAU-X-137E. Natural Resources Canada, Laurentian Forest Centre, Québec City, QC, Canada. ftp://ftp.cfl.scf.rncan.gc.ca/regniere/software/BioSIM/Doc/LAU-X-137E.zip (Accessed September 10 2013)
  71. Rinn F (1996) TSAP—time series analysis and precipitation. Version 3 Reference Manual. Heidelberg,Google Scholar
  72. Schreiber SG, Ding C, Hamann A, Hacke UG, Thomas BR, Brouard JS (2013) Frost hardiness vs. growth performance in trembling aspen: an experimental test of assisted migration. J Appl Ecol 504:939–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smulders MJM, Van Der Schoot J, Arens P, Vosman B (2001) Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for black poplar (Populus nigra L.). Mol Ecol Notes 13:188–190Google Scholar
  74. Valentine HT (1985) Tree-growth models: derivations employing the pipe-model theory. J Theor Biol 1174:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Verbeke G, Molenberghs G (2009) Linear mixed models for longitudinal data. Springer Science and Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Wigley TML, Briffa KR, Jones PD (1984) On the average value of correlated time series, with applications in dendroclimatology and hydrometeorology. J Clim Appl Meteorol 232:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Worrall JJ, Egeland L, Eager T, Mask RA, Johnson EW, Kemp PA, Shepperd WD (2008) Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA. For Ecol Manag 2553:686–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Worrall JJ, Rehfeldt GE, Hamann A, Hogg EH, Marchetti SB, Michaelian M, Gray LK (2013) Recent declines of Populus tremuloides in North America linked to climate. For Ecol Manag 299:35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wyman J, Bruneau A, Tremblay MF (2003) Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in four populations of Populus tremuloides in Quebec. Can J Bot 814:360–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yang Y, Huang S, Meng SX, Trincado G, VanderSchaaf CL (2009) A multilevel individual tree basal area increment model for aspen in boreal mixedwood stands. Can J For Res 3911:2203–2214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zuur A, Ieno EN, Walker N, Saveliev AA, Smith GM (2009) Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer Science and Business Media, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathieu Latutrie
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Pierre Mérian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sandrine Picq
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yves Bergeron
    • 1
    • 3
  • Francine Tremblay
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Université du Québec en Abitibi-TémiscamingueRouyn-NorandaCanada
  2. 2.Département des Sciences Sociales and Institut des Sciences de la Forêt TempéréeUniversité du Québec en OutaouaisRiponCanada
  3. 3.Centre d’Étude de la ForêtUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations