Advertisement

Tree Genetics & Genomes

, 11:10 | Cite as

Genetic parameters and clone by environment interactions for growth and foliar nutrient concentrations in radiata pine on 14 widely diverse New Zealand sites

  • Yongjun Li
  • Jianming Xue
  • Peter W. Clinton
  • Heidi S. Dungey
Original Paper

Abstract

Genetic variations and genotype by environment (G × E) interactions in growth and foliar traits were studied with 40 clones of radiata pine in a trial series on 14 sites across a range of environments in New Zealand. Total height was assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 years from planting. Stem diameter was assessed as ground-level diameter at ages 1 and 3 years and diameter at breast height (DBH) at ages 5, 6 and 8 years. Fascicle weight, foliar nutrient concentrations, foliar carbon isotope composition and nitrogen isotope composition were assessed at age 5 years at seven sites. Significant genetic variation in these traits existed at most of the sites but with variable and incomplete consistency from site to site, indicating G × E interactions. Individual-tree clonal repeatability (cf. broad-sense heritability) of total height and stem diameter tended to increase with age. Furthermore, across-sites estimates of clonal repeatability of total height and stem diameter were lower than single-site estimates. Marked G × E interactions were observed in growth and foliar traits. The interaction levels for growth traits were significantly associated with site differences in soil nutrient levels of nitrogen and total phosphorus and annual mean temperature. The G × E interaction levels for two foliar traits calcium content and fascicle weight were significantly associated with the site difference of soil nutrient levels of magnesium and potassium, respectively. Foliar carbon isotope composition and carbon/nitrogen ratio showed moderate clonal repeatability and high genetic correlations with growth, suggesting that they could be used as selection traits for improving radiata pine growth rate.

Keywords

Genetic variation Genotype by environment interaction Growth traits Foliar nutrient concentrations Fascicle weight Radiata pine 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all the forest companies involved in this work for providing the sites for this study. We acknowledge the valuable and hard work of many Scion colleagues for establishing and measuring the trials. Many thanks also go to Loretta Garrett for providing soil and climatic information and to Veritec laboratory staff for needle sample analyses. The project was funded by the New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology under contract C04X0304, ‘Protecting and Enhancing the Environment through Forestry’. We would like to express our gratitude to Rowland Burdon and anonymous reviewers for review and valuable suggestions and to Charlie Low for Scion internal review.

Data archiving statement

Data used in this manuscript has been uploaded into TreeGenes database with access number TGDR031 (https://dendrome.ucdavis.edu/tgdr/index.php).

Supplementary material

11295_2014_830_MOESM1_ESM.docx (49 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 49.3 kb)
11295_2014_830_MOESM2_ESM.docx (49 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 49.4 kb)
11295_2014_830_MOESM3_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 17.6 kb)

References

  1. Baltunis BS, Brawner JT (2010) Clonal stability in Pinus radiata across New Zealand and Australia. I. Growth and form traits. New For 40(3):305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beets PN, Jokela EJ (1994) Upper mid-crown yellowing in Pinus radiata: some genetic and nutritional aspects associated with its occurrence. N Z J For Sci 24(1):35–50Google Scholar
  3. Beets PN, Oliver GR, Kimberley MO, Pearce SH, Rodgers B (2004) Genetic and soil factors associated with variation in visual magnesium deficiency symptoms in Pinus radiata. For Ecol Manag 189:263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blakemore LC, Searle PL, Daly BK (1987) Methods for chemical analysis of soils. New Zealand Soil Bureau, Scientific Report 80Google Scholar
  5. Burdon RD (1971) Clonal repeatabilities and clone–site interactions in Pinus radiata. Silvae Genet 20(1–2):33–37Google Scholar
  6. Burdon RD (1976) Foliar macronutrient concentrations and foliage retention in radiata pine clones on four sites. N Z J For Sci 5:250–259Google Scholar
  7. Burdon RD (1977) Genetic correlation as a concept for studying genotype–environment interaction in forest tree breeding. Silvae Genet 26:168–175Google Scholar
  8. Burdon RD, Banister MH, Low CB (1992) Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 4. variance structures and heritabilities in Juvenile clones. N Z J For Sci 22:187–210Google Scholar
  9. Carson SD (1991) Genotype × environment interaction and optimal number of progeny test sites for improving Pinus radiata in New Zealand. N Z J For Sci 21:32–49Google Scholar
  10. Coque M, Bertin P, Hirel B, Gallais A (2006) Genetic variation and QTLs for 15N natural abundance in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. Field Crops Res 97:310–321Google Scholar
  11. Correia I, Almeida MH, Aguiar A, Alĺa RD, David TS, Pereira JS (2008) Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins. Tree Physiol 28:1545–1552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa e Silva J, Potts B, Dutkowski G (2006) Genotype by environment interaction for growth of Eucalyptus globulus in Australia. Tree Genet Genome 2(2):61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cotterill PP, Dean CA (1988) Changes in the genetic control of growth of radiata pine to 16 years and efficiencies of early selection. Silvae Genet 37(3–4):138–146Google Scholar
  14. Cullis BR, Jefferson P, Thompson R, Smith AB (2014) Factor analytic and reduced animal models for the investigation of additive genotype-by-environment interaction in outcrossing plant species with application to a Pinus radiata breeding programme. Theor Appl Genet 127(10):2193–2210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ding MD, Tier B, Dutkowski GW (2008) Multi-environment trial analysis on Pinus radiata: step by step to search “real” G × E interaction. N Z J For Sci 38:143–159Google Scholar
  16. Dungey HS, Sorensson CT (2006) The genetic value of clones for growth, form and sonic velocity properties in Pinus radiata in North Island of New Zealand. In: Mercer CF (ed) Breeding for success: diversity in action: proceedings of 13th Australasian Plant Breeding Conference, 18–21 April 2006, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 505–514Google Scholar
  17. Evans RD (2001) Physiological mechanisms influencing plant nitrogen isotope composition. Trends Plant Sci 6:121–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Falconer D, Mackay T (1996) Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longmans Green, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick KT (1989a) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:503–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Farquhar GD, Hubick KT, Condon AG, Richards RA (1989b) Carbon isotope fractionation and plant water-use efficiency. In: Rundal PW, Ehleringer JR, Nagy KA (eds) Stable isotopes in ecological research. Springer, NewYork, pp 21–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Forrest WG, Ovington JD (1971) Variation in dry weight and mineral nutrient content of Pinus radiata progeny. Silvae Genet 20:174–179Google Scholar
  22. Gilmour AR, Cullis BR, Gogel BJ, Thompson R (2009) ASREML user guide release 3.0. VSN International Ltd, Hemel HempsteadGoogle Scholar
  23. Guehl JM, Nguyen-Queyrens A, Loustau D, Ferhi A (1995) Genetic and environmental determinants of water use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in forest trees. Paper presented at the EUROSILVA Contribution to Forest Tree Physiology. INRA, Paris, France. pp 297–321, November 7-10, 1994Google Scholar
  24. Handley LL, Robinson D, Forster BP, Ellis RP, Scrimgeour CM, Gordon DC, Nevo E, Raven JA (1997) Shoot δ15N correlates with genotype and salt stress in barley. Planta 201:100–102Google Scholar
  25. Hardner CM, Dieters M, Dale G, DeLacy I, Basford K (2010) Patterns of genotype-by-environment interaction in diameter at breast height at age 3 for eucalypt hybrid clones grown for reafforestation of lands affected by salinity. Tree Genet Genome 6(6):833–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ivković M, Dutkowski G, Jefferson P, Gapare W, Wu H, Jovanovic T, McRae T (2013) Matching genotypes to current and future production environments to maximise radiata pine productivity and profitability. Paper presented at the Forest Genetics 2013. A Joint Meeting of WFGA and IUFRO, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 22‐25 July 2013Google Scholar
  27. Jayawickrama KJS (2001) Estimated among-family and within-family variances and heritabilities from three radiata pine clonal trials. For Genet 8(3):247–257Google Scholar
  28. Johnsen KH, Flanagan LB, Huber DA, Major JE (1999) Genetic variation in growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and foliar N concentration in Picea mariana: analyses from a half-diallel mating design using field-grown trees. Can J For Res 29(11):1727–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnsen KH, Major JE (1995) Gas exchange of 20-year-old black spruce families displaying a genotype–environment interaction in growth rate. Can J For Res 25:430–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kendall MG, Stuart A (1979) The advantage theory of statistics. Vol. 2. Inference and relationship. Griffin and Co. LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. King JN, Burdon RD (1991) Time trends in inheritance and projected efficiencies of early selection in a large 17-year-old projeny test of Pinus radiata. Can J For Res 21:1200–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Knight PJ (1978) Foliar concentrations of ten mineral nutrients in nine Pinus radiata clones during a 15-month period. N Z J For Sci 8:351–368Google Scholar
  33. Kohl DH, Shearer G (1980) Isotopic fractionation associated with symbiotic N2 fixation and uptake of NO3 by plants. Plant Physiol 66:51–56CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kolb KJ, Evans RD (2003) Influence of nitrogen source and concentration on nitrogen isotopic concentration in two barley genotypes. Plant Cell Environ 26:1431–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Major JE, Johnsen KH (1996) Family variation in photosynthesis of 22-year-old black spruce: a test of two models of physiological response to water stress. Can J For Res 26:1922–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McDonald TM (2009) Making sense of genotype × environment interaction of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. MSc, University of Canterbury, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  37. McDonald TM, Apiolaza LA (2009) Genotype by environment interaction of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. Paper presented at the Second Australasian Forest Genetics Conference, Perth, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  38. Muir W, Nyquist WE, Xu S (1992) Alternative partitioning of the genotype-by-environment interaction. Theor Appl Genet 84(1–2):193–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nienstaedt H, Riemenschneider DE (1985) Changes in heritabilitiy estimates with age and site in white spruce Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. Silvae Genet 34(1):34–41Google Scholar
  40. Pederick LA, Hopmans DW, Flinn DW, Abbott ID (1984) Variation in genotypic response to suspected copper deficiency in Pinus radiata. Aust For Res 14:75–84Google Scholar
  41. Prasolova NV, Xu Z, Farquhar GD, Saffigna PG, Dieters MJ (2001) Canopy carbon and oxygen isotope composition of 9-year-old hoop pine families in relation to seedling carbon isotope composition, growth, field growth performance, and canopy nitrogen concentration. Can J For Res 31(4):673–681Google Scholar
  42. Prasolova NV, Xu ZH, Lundkvist K, Farquhar GD, Dieters MJ, Walker S, Saffigna PG (2003) Genetic variation in foliar carbon isotope composition in relation to tree growth and foliar nitrogen concentration in clones of the F1 hybrid between slash pine and Caribbean pine. For Ecol Manag 172(2–3):145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raupach M, Nicholls JWP (1982) Foliar nutrient levels and wood densitometric characteristics in clones of Pinus radiata D. Don. Aust For Res 12:93–103Google Scholar
  44. Raymond CA (2011) Genotype by environment interactions for Pinus radiata in New South Wales, Australia. Tree Genet Genome 7(4):819–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robinson D, Handley LL, Scrimgeour CM, Gordon DC, Forster BP, Ellis RP (2000) Using stable isotope natural abundances (δ15N and δ13C) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) genotypes. J Exp Bot 51:41–50Google Scholar
  46. Shelbourne CJA (1972) Genotype–environment interaction: its study and its implications in forest tree improvement. Paper presented at the Proceedings of IUFRO Genetics and SABRAO Joint Symposium, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  47. Sun OJ, Payn TW (1999) Magnesium nutrition and photosynthesis in Pinus radiata: clonal variation and influence of potassium. Tree Physiol 19:535–540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Theodorou C, Bowen GD (1993) Root morphology, growth and uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen of Pinus radiata families in different soils. For Ecol Manag 56:43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Turvey ND, Carlyle C, Downes GM (1992) Effects of micronutrients on the growth form of two families of Pinus radiata (D. Don) seedlings. Plant Soil 139:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wu HX, Ivković M, Gapare WJ, Matheson AC, Baltunis BS, Powell MB, McRae TA (2008) Breeding for wood quality and profit in radiata pine: a review of genetic parameters. N Z J For Sci 38(1):56–87Google Scholar
  51. Wu HX, Matheson AC (2005) Genotype by environment interactions in an Australia-wide radiata pine diallel mating experiment: implications for regionalized breeding. For Sci 51(1):29–40Google Scholar
  52. Wu HX, Powell MB, Yang JL, Ivković M, McRae TA (2007) Efficiency of early selection for rotation-aged wood quality traits in radiata pine. Ann For Sci 64(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xu Z, Prasolova N, Lundkvist K, Beadle C, Leaman T (2003) Genetic variation in branchlet carbon and nitrogen isotope composition and nutrient concentration of 11-year-old hoop pine families in relation to tree growth in subtropical Australia. For Ecol Manag 186(1–3):359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zarcinas BA (1984) Analysis of soil and plant material by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Comparison of digestion procedures for major and trace constituents in plant material. CSIRO Division of Soils. Divisional Report No. 70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongjun Li
    • 1
  • Jianming Xue
    • 2
  • Peter W. Clinton
    • 2
  • Heidi S. Dungey
    • 1
  1. 1.Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute)Rotorua 3046New Zealand
  2. 2.Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute)Christchurch 8540New Zealand

Personalised recommendations