Genetic diversity and parentage of Tunisian wild and cultivated grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) as revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers
- 466 Downloads
Based on 261 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, we analyzed 57 grapevine genotypes, consisting of 29 wild grapevines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris) prospected from the northwest part of Tunisia and 28 cultivated accessions (V. vinifera subsp. vinifera) maintained in the repository of the Arid Land Institute of Medenine (Tunisia). Pair-wise multilocus comparison with the ICVV SNP database allowed the identification of 13 cultivated genotypes, including ten synonymous groups with known Mediterranean or international varieties, three cases of color sports, and two misnomers. Genotypic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity for both wild and cultivated groups. Multivariate and structure analyses clearly differentiated wild from cultivated grapevines and showed high average posterior probabilities of assignment to their group of origin. The clustering results largely supported the perceived classification and reflect that most of the present Tunisian cultivated varieties do not derive directly from the local wild populations but could correspond to materials introduced from different locations during historical times. Parentage analysis allowed the determination of the genetic origin of four Tunisian cultivars, “Garai”, “Jerbi” (from Kerkennah), “Mahdoui”, and “Reine de Vignes faux”, and showed that “Heptakilo” and “Planta Fina”, two old and widely distributed varieties in the Mediterranean basin, had an important role in the origin of Tunisian grapevines. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of SNP makers for germplasm characterization and genetic studies in grapevine.
KeywordsGenetic structure Germplasm characterization Pedigree analysis SNP markers Sylvestris grapevine
This work was funded by AECID (Agencia Española de CooperaciónInternacionalpara el Desarrollo, Spain) within the framework of projects A/023457/09 and A/031064/10.
We are indebted to many people for their various contributions to this research, especially to all the staff of forest services in northwest part of Tunisia for their support during collecting of wild grapevine material and Silvia Hernáiz for laboratory technical assistance.
Data Archiving Statement
All the SNP data of Tunisian grapevines used in this work will be made publicly available through DRYAD (http://datadryad.org/depositing). The data is also included in the main manuscript and in the associated supplemental data.
- Abdelkafi J (2005) Le vignoble du Cap Bon (Tunisie). In: Les Paysages culturels viticoles. Étude thématique dans le cadre de la Convention du Patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO, pp 139-141Google Scholar
- Chetouh C (1991) Study monographic of indigenous type of grapevines of North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt). Dissertation. Ecole Nationale Superieured' Agriculture of Montpellier.Google Scholar
- Di Vecchi-Staraz M, Laucou V, Bruno G, Lacombe T, Gerber S, Bourse T, Boselli M, This P (2009) Low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine: consequences for the evolution of the endangered subspecies Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris. J Hered 100:66–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greene JA, Kehoe DP (1991) Mago the Carthaginian on agriculture: archeology and the ancient sources. In Proceedings for the Congress International des Etudes pheniciennesetpuniques, Tunis, Tunisia, pp 11–16Google Scholar
- Isnard H (1966) Viticulture nord-africaine. In: Flory M, Etienne B (eds) Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord-Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Centre de recherches sur l'Afrique méditerranéenne (CRAM), Paris, France, pp 37–48Google Scholar
- Ji K, Zhang D, Motilal LA, Boccara M, Lachenaud P, Meinhardt LW (2013) Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60(2):441–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Myles S, Boyko AR, Owens CL, Brown PJ, Grassi F, Aradhya MK, Prins B, Reynolds A, Chia JM, Ware D, Bustamante CD, Buckler ES (2011) Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(9):3530–3535. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1009363108 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OIV (2013) OIV vine and wine outlook 2008-2009. Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Park SJ (2001) Microsatellite toolkit for Excel. Smurfit Institute of Genetics. Trinity College. University of Dublin, IrelandGoogle Scholar
- Riahi L, Laucou V, Le Cunff L, Zoghlami N, Boursiquot JM, Lacombe T, El-Heit K, Mliki A, This P (2012) Highly polymorphic nSSR markers: a useful tool to assess origin of North African cultivars and to provide additional proofs of secondary grapevine domestication events. Sci Hortic 141:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Riahi L, Zoghlami N, Fournier-Level A, Dereeper A, Le Cunff L, Laucou V, Mliki A, This P (2013) Characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism in Tunisian grapevine genome and their potential for population genetics and evolutionary studies. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60:1139–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strefeler MS, Weeden NF, Reisch BI (1992) Inheritance of chloroplast DNA in 2 full-sib Vitis populations. Vitis 31(4):183–187Google Scholar