Evolution and divergence in the coding and promoter regions of the Populus gene family encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases
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- Ye, X., Yuan, S., Guo, H. et al. Tree Genetics & Genomes (2012) 8: 177. doi:10.1007/s11295-011-0431-1
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Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are believed to modify the cell wall structure by cleaving a xyloglucan polymer and transferring the newly generated, potentially reducing, terminal to another xyloglucan. We report here the detailed analysis of 37 Populus trichocarpa XTH genes/proteins in their divergence in both the coding and 5′ promoter regions. Our results show that the Populus XTH genes have experienced whole-genome and local duplications and pre- and post-speciation divergence. Genome-wide and segmental duplications seem to be dominant in subfamily I and III, while tandem duplication seems to be the major mechanism for the subfamily II expansion, which also has higher average ratios of Ka/Ks compared to those in subfamily I and III. There was a general lack of organ-specific gene expression. In contrast, the expression patterns in subfamily II varied in response to various hormone treatments, with II-A being up-regulated and II-B down-regulated after 2 h of hormone treatment. Expression for this subfamily was verified using the 1.5-kb PtXTH22 promoter that was fused with the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis. The PtXTH22 promoter contains auxin response element, ethylene insensitive 3-like factors, and brassinosteroid response cis-elements. Histochemical GUS staining of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings confirmed that the PtXTH22 promoter was up-regulated by several hormones.
KeywordsXyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) Gene duplications and divergence Gene expression Populus Arabidopsis