Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Genotype by environment interactions for Pinus radiata in New South Wales, Australia

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Tree Genetics & Genomes Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Historical data from 26 progeny trials in the NSW breeding program was analyzed to determine the extent and practical importance of genotype by environment (G×E) interactions for a range of traits. Significant G×E interaction was present for diameter (DBH) with 75% of the 35 estimated between-site genetic correlations falling below the threshold value of 0.6 where regionalization should be considered. Estimated genetic correlations for stem straightness, branch quality, and outerwood density were much higher, indicating these traits are not as affected by G×E. Levels of G×E for DBH are sufficient to have serious impacts on the expression of genetic gain in deployed material. For DBH, altitude differences between sites appear to be the key factor driving the G×E with a difference of greater than 280 m in altitude leading to a breakdown in correlations. Two groups of sites were identified as having limited G×E within each group: one for sites above 900 m elevation plus a lower-altitude group. Sites included in the higher-altitude group were located across the entire north–south geographic range of NSW. Equations for prediction of site mean DBH indicate that altitude, prior land use, and underlying geology are key driving variables. A more complex model was developed for predicting the between-site genetic correlations for DBH with the model accounting for approximately 50% of the observed variation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ades PK, Garnier-Géré PH (1996) Stability analysis for Pinus radiata provenances and its implications for genetic resource conservation. In: Dieters MJ et al. (Eds) Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proc. QFRI-IUFRO Conf.Caloundra Queensland, November 1996. pp 118–122

  • Ades PK, Garnier-Géré PH (1997) Making sense of provenance x environment interactions in Pinus radiata. Proc. IUFRO ’97 Genetics of Radiata Pine Meeting, Rotorua, New Zealand. December 1997. FRI Bulletin 203. pp. 113–119

  • Ades PK, Johnson IG (1984) Assessment of Pinus radiata progeny trials Q14/1.14 and Q14/4.8 seven years after planting. Forestry Commission of NSW, Wood Technology and Forest Research Division, Report No: 940, Series SIL. 24 pp

  • Annicchiarico P (2002) Genotype x environment interactions: challenges and opportunities for plant breeding and cultivar recommendations. FAO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD (1971) Clonal repeatabilities and clone-site interactions in Pinus radiata. Silvae Genet 20:33–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD (1976) Foliar macronutrient concentrations and foliage retention in radiata pine clones on four sites. NZ J Forest Sci 5:250–259

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD (1977) Genetic correlation as a concept for studying genotype-environment interaction in forest tree breeding. Silvae Genet 26:168–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD, Hong SO, Shelbourne CJA, Johnson IG, Butcher TB, Boomsma DB, Verryn SD, Cameron JN, Appleton R (1997a) International gene pool experiments in Pinus radiata: patterns of genotype–site interaction. NZ J Forest Sci 27:101–125

    Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD, Firth A, Low CB, Miller MA (1997b) Native provenances of Pinus radiata in New Zealand: performance and potential. NZ Forest 41(4):32–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Burdon RD, Firth A, Low CB, Miller MA (1998) Multi-site provenance trials of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. For Genet Resour 26:3–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Carson SD (1991) Genotype x environment interaction and optimal number of progeny test sites for improving Pinus radiata in New Zealand. NZ J Forest Sci 21(1):32–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Codesido V, Fernández-López J (2009) Implications of genotype x site interaction on Pinus radiata breeding in Galicia. New For 37:17–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding M (2008) Increasing the accuracy of analysing G×E interaction and integrating the information to P. radiata breeding program. PhD Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, NSW Australia

  • Ding M, Tier B, Yan W, Wu HX, Powell MB, McRae TA (2008) Application of GCE biplot analysis to evaluate genotype (G), environment (E) and G×E interaction on Pinus radiata: a case study. NZ J Forest Sci 38:132–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Eldridge KG (1978) Refreshing the genetic resources of radiata pine plantations. CSIRO Division of Forest Research, Genetics Section Report, No. 7, 120 pp

  • Eriksson G, Andersson S, Eiche V, Ifver J, Persson A (1980) Severity index and transfer effects on survival and volume production of Pinus sylvestris in northern Sweden. Studia Forestalia Suec 156:1–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilmour AR, Gogel BJ, Cullis BR, Welham SJ, Thompson R (2002) ASReml user guide release 1. VSN, Hemel Hempstead

    Google Scholar 

  • Hannrup B, Jansson G, Danell Ö (2008) Genotype by environment interaction in Pinus sylvestris L. in Southern Sweden. Silvae Genet 57(6):306–311

    Google Scholar 

  • Houlder D, Hutchinson M, Nix H, McMahon J (2001) ANUCLIM 5.1 User’s Guide. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, The Australian National University. Canberra Australia. 85 pp

  • James JW (1961) Selection in two environments. Heredity 16:145–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson IG (1989) The breeding strategy for radiata pine in New South Wales. Part II. Proposed operations. Technical Paper No. 47, Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney. 58 pp

  • Johnson IG, Ades PK, Eldridge KG (1997) Growth of natural Californian provenances of Pinus radiata in New South Wales, Australia. NZ J Forest Sci 27:23–38

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson IG, Cotterill IM, Raymond CA, Henson M (2008) Half a century of radiata tree improvement in NSW. NZ J For 52(4):7–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson GR, Burdon RD (1990) Family-site interaction in Pinus radiata: implications for progeny testing strategy and regionalised breeding in New Zealand. Silvae Genet 39:55–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Libby WJ (1997) Native origins of domesticated radiata pine. In: Burdon RD, Moore JM (eds) IUFRO '97 Genetics of Radiata Pine. Proceedings of NZFRI - IUFRO Conference 1–4 December and Workshop 5 December, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp. 9–25, FRI Bulletin No. 203

  • Kang MS (2002) Genotype–environment interaction: progress and prospects. In: Kang MS (ed) Quantitative genetics, genomics and plant breeding. CABI, Cambridge, pp 221–243

    Google Scholar 

  • Matheson AC, Raymond CA (1984) The impact of genotype x environment interactions on Australian Pinus radiata breeding programs. Aust For Res 14:11–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Moran GF, Bell JC (1987) The origin and genetic diversity of Pinus radiata in Australia. Theor Appl Genet 43:616–622

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moran GF, Bell JC, Eldridge KG (1988) The genetic structure and the conservation of the five natural populations of Pinus radiata. Can J For Res 18:506–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mulder HA, Veerkamp RF, Ducro BJ, van Arendonk JAM, Bijma P (2006) Optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for different environments with genotype by environment interaction. J Dairy Sci 89:1740–1752

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Payne RW, Harding SA, Murray DA, Soutar DM, Baird DB, Glaser AI, Channing IC, Welham SJ, Gilmour AR, Thompson R, Webster R (2008) The Guide to GenStat Release 11, Part 2: Statistics. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead

    Google Scholar 

  • Raymond CA (2008) Influence of prior land use on wood quality of Pinus radiata in NSW. For Ecol Manage 255:2626–2633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raymond CA, Lindgren D (1990) Genetic flexibility: a model for determining the range of suitable environments for a seed source. Silvae Genet 39:112–120

    Google Scholar 

  • Raymond CA, Henson M (2009) Genetic variation within the native provenances of Pinus radiata D. Don. I. Growth and form to age 26 years. Silvae Genet 58:242–252

    Google Scholar 

  • Rehfeldt GE (1988) Ecological genetics of Pinus contorta from the Rocky Mountains (USA): a synthesis. Silvae Genet 37(3–4):131–135

    Google Scholar 

  • Shelbourne CJA (1972) Genotype-environment interaction: Its study and its implications in forest tree improvement. Proceedings of IUFRO Genetics-SABARAO joint symposium Tokyo. B-1(I):1–28

  • Skrøppa T (1984) A critical evaluation of methods available to estimate the genotype by environment interaction. Studia Forestalia Suec 166:3–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner J, Knott JH, Lambert M (1996) Fertilization of Pinus radiata plantations after thinning. I Productivity gains. Aust Forest 59:7–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner J, Turvey ND, Booth TH, Ryan PJ (1990) A soil technical classification system for Pinus radiata (D. Don) plantations. I. Development. Aust J Soil Res 28:813–824

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turner J, Lambert MJ, Hopmans P, McGrath J (2001) Site variation in Pinus radiata plantations and implications for site specific management. New For 21:249–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turvey ND (ed) (1987) A technical classification for soils of Pinus plantations: field manual. Bulletin No. 6, School of Forestry, University of Melbourne

  • Wielinga B, Raymond CA, James R, Matheson CA (2009) Genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction for green and basic density and stiffness of Pinus radiata D. Don estimated using acoustics. Silvae Genetica 58:112–122

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu HX, Ying CD (2004) Geographic pattern of local optimality in natural populations of lodgepole pine. For Ecol Manage 197:177–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu HX, Matheson AC (2005) Genotype by environment interactions in an Australia-wide radiata pine diallel mating experiment: implications for regionalized breeding. For Sci 51:29–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu HX, Eldridge KG, Matheson AC, Powell MB, McRae TA, Butcher TB, Johnson IG (2007) Achievements in forest tree improvement in Australia and New Zealand. 8. Successful introduction and breeding of radiata pine in Australia. Aust for 70:215–225

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the many people involved in the NSW tree breeding program over the past 50 years, especially Ian Johnson and Ian Cotterill who were largely responsible for developing and implementing the program. Special thanks also to the hardworking field staff from Forests NSW who established, maintained, and measured the many trials including Ian Hides, David Bell, Brian Fisher, Kevin Dodds, Mike Catherall, Stuart Lefevre, Des Gibbons, and Merv Butler. Other Forests NSW research staff involved in the tree breeding program over the years included Peter Ades (now at Melbourne University) and Hans Porada.

A special thank you goes to Michael Henson for initiating the current project and ensuring that funding from the Radiata Pine Breeding Company was made available for a sufficient period to enable a detailed analysis of the historical data.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Carolyn A. Raymond.

Additional information

Communicated by R. Burdon

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Raymond, C.A. Genotype by environment interactions for Pinus radiata in New South Wales, Australia. Tree Genetics & Genomes 7, 819–833 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-011-0376-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-011-0376-4

Keywords

Navigation