Advertisement

Atlantic Economic Journal

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 337–349 | Cite as

Foreign Aid and HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: Should We Adjust the Degree of Response?

  • Juan J. DelaCruz
Article

Abstract

This paper estimates the effects of foreign aid on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence in a sample of 27 Latin American and Caribbean countries during 1995–2013 and advocates for stronger sentinel surveillance to monitor the stability of the epidemic in the region. Surges in global HIV funding have improved access to health care and antiretroviral therapy, leading to gains in life expectancy. HIV is a prime cause of death and disability in resource-poor settings. It declines with more global funding for health, yet its pathway is random. The net impact of foreign aid on health is unknown due to poor surveillance. HIV’s unsystematic nature requires better metrics arising from global aid data to calibrate the degree of response in the region. A dynamic panel-data model with robust standard errors was used to determine if changes in HIV were associated with changes in foreign aid for health in the sample but the positive association was not statistically significant. Better data from local epidemics is needed to reveal population- and group-specific trends.

Keywords

HIV Foreign aid Latin America Caribbean Surveillance 

JEL

I00 O54 

References

  1. Alemnji, G. A., et al. (2012). Strengthening National Laboratory Health Systems in the Caribbean region. Global Public Health, 7(6), 648–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alesina, A., & Weder, B. (2002). Do corrupt governments receive less foreign aid? The American Economic Review, 92(4), 1126–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arellano, M., & Bond, S. (1991). Some tests of specification for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. Review of Economic Studies, 58(2), 277–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armah, S and Nelson, C (2008), Is Foreign Aid Beneficial for Sub-Saharan Africa? A Panel Data Analysis, American Agricultural Economic Association, http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/6356. Accessed on January 2016.
  5. Asiedu, E., Jun, Y., & Kanyama, I. (2015). The impact of HIV/AIDS on foreign direct investment: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Trade, 2(1–2), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Auvert, B., et al. (2006). Correction: Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 trial. PLoS Medicine, 3(5), e226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. AVERT (2014, March), HIV and Aids in Latin America and the Caribbean. http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-latin-america.htm
  8. Azarnert, L. V. (2008). Foreign aid, fertility and human capital accumulation. Economica, 75, 766–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey, R. C., et al. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: Randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 369(9562), 643–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barro, R. J. (2013). Health and economic growth. Annals of Economics and Finance, 14(2), 305–342.Google Scholar
  11. Bellemare, M., Masaki, T., & Pepinsky, T. (2017). Lagged explanatory variables and the estimation of causal effects. Journal of Politics, 79(3), 949–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bendavid, E., & Bhattacharya, J. (2014). The relationship of health aid to population health improvements. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(6), 881–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boone, P. (1996). Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid. European Economic Review, 40(2), 289–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calleja, J. M., et al. (2002). Status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and methods to monitor it in the Latin America and Caribbean region. AIDS Journal, 16(Supp3), S3–S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, L., et al. (2004). Human resources for health: Overcoming the crisis. The Lancet, 364(9449), 1984–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, M. (2011). Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(6), 493–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Boni, R., Veloso, V., & Grinsztejn, B. (2014). Epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean. Current Opinion in HIV/AIDS, 9(2), 192–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DelaCruz, J. J. (2009). An IV analysis of the impact of the HIV epidemic in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 1(2), 173–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DelaCruz, J. J. (2011). The state of the HIV epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean: Policy recommendations. Global Journal of Health Sciences, 3(2), 56–68.Google Scholar
  20. Easterly, W. (2003). Can foreign aid buy growth? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17(3), 23–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fan, V., & Savedoff, W. (2014). The health financing transition: A conceptual framework and empirical evidence. Social Science and Medicine Journal, 105(2014), 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Franko, P. (2007). The Puzzle of Latin American Economic Development (3rd ed.p. 712). London: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Feenstra, R., et al. (2015). The Next Generation of the Penn World Table. American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150–3182. http://www.ggdc.net/pwt CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garcia-Abreu, A et al. (2003), HIV/AIDS in Latin American Countries: The Challenge Ahead, World Bank.Google Scholar
  25. Geng, E. (2010). Tracking a sample of patients lost to follow-up has a major impact on understanding determinants of survival in HIV-infected patients on ART in Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 15(s1), 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldie, S. (2006). Cost-effectiveness of HIV treatment in resource-poor settings: The case of cote D’Ivoire. New England Journal of Medicine, 335(11), 1141–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grant, R. (2010). Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(27), 2587–2599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gray, R. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: A randomised trial. The Lancet, 369(9562), 657–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greene, W (2012), Econometric Analysis, New York NY, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, D (2013), Economics and HIV: The Sickness of Economics, New York NY, Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Justice, J (1989), Policies, Plans, and People: Foreign Aid and Health Development, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, p.220.Google Scholar
  32. Kalyvitis, S., & Vlachaki, I. (2012). When does more aid imply less democracy? An empirical examination. European Journal of Political Economy, 28(2012), 134–146.Google Scholar
  33. Kimanga, D. (2014). Prevalence and incidence of HIV infection, trends, and risk factors among persons aged 15-64 years in Kenya: Results from nationally representative study. Journal of AIDS, 66(s1), 13–26.Google Scholar
  34. Kimura, H., Mori, Y., & Sawada, Y. (2012). Aid proliferation and economic growth: A cross-country analysis. World Development, 40(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Madigan, E., Curet, O., & Zrinyi, M. (2008). Workforce analysis using data mining and linear regression to understand HIV/AIDS prevalence patterns. Human Resources for Health, 6(2), 1–6.Google Scholar
  36. Moatti, J., N’Doye, I., Hammer, S., Hale, P., & Kazatchkine, M. (2003). Antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection in developing countries: An attainable new paradigm. Nature Medicine, 9(2003), 1449–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray, J. (2015). Maximizing antiretroviral therapy in developing countries: The dual challenge of efficiency and quality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 313(4), 359–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nwaogu, U., & Ryan, M. (2015). FDI, foreign aid, remittance and economic growth in developing countries. Review of Development Economics, 19(1), 100–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2008), “The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action”, http://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/34428351.pdf
  40. Parkhurst, J. (2009). Understanding the correlations between wealth, poverty and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2010(88), 519–526.Google Scholar
  41. Quinn, T. (2007). Circumcision and HIV transmission. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Riddell, RC (2014), Does Foreign Aid Really Work? An Updated Assessment, development policy Centre, discussion paper (33). Doi:  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2409847.
  43. Schneider, K., and Garret, L. (2009), The evolution and future of donor assistance for HIV/AIDS, Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/report/evolution-and-future-donor-assistance-hivaids
  44. Schraeder, P., Hook, S., & Taylor, B. (1998). Clarifying the foreign aid puzzle: A comparison of American, Japanese, French, and Swedish aid flows. World Politics, 50(2), 294–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sgaier, S., et al. (2012). Knowing your HIV/AIDS epidemic and tailoring an effective response: How did India do it? Sexually Transmitted Infections, 88(4), 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shao, Y., & Williamson, C. (2012). The HIV-1 epidemic: Low- to middle-income countries. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(3), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tarnoff, C. and Nowels, l. (2004), Foreign aid: An introductory overview of US programs and policy, Congressional Research Service (CRS) report for Congress 98-916. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/98-916.pdf
  48. UNAIDS (2005), “Guidelines for Measuring National HIV Prevalence in Population-Based Surveys”, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/surveillance/measuring/en/
  49. UNAIDS (2013) “Methodology: Understanding the HIV Estimates”, http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/UNAIDS_methodology_HIVestimates_en.pdf
  50. UNAIDS (2015), “How AIDS Changed Everything: 15 Years, 15 Lessons of Hope from the AIDS Response”, http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/MDG6Report_en.pdf
  51. UNAIDS (2018) “AIDS Info”(http://aidsinfo.unaids.org). Accessed 15 August 2018.
  52. Veronese, F., et al. (2011). Implications of HIV PrEP trials results. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 27(1), 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walker, N., Grassly, N., Garnett, G., Stanecki, K., & Ghys, P. (2004). Estimating the global burden of HIV/AIDS: What do we really know about the HIV pandemic? The Lancet, 363(9427), 2180–2185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Bank (2015, September), retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/region/LAC
  55. World Bank (2018) “Indicators” (http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/). Accessed 15 August, 2018.
  56. World Health Organization (2011), “Global Health and Aging”, http://www.int/ageing/publications/global_health.pdf
  57. Yu, D., Souteyrand, Y., Banda, M., Kaufman, J., & Perriëns, J. (2008). Investment in HIVAIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries. Globalization and Health, 4, 8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-4-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Atlantic Economic Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics and Business - Lehman CollegeCity University of New YorkBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations