The effect of procedural injustice during emergency 911 calls: a factorial vignette-based study

  • Michaela FlippinEmail author
  • Michael D. Reisig
  • Rick Trinkner



This study tests the effects of procedurally unfair treatment by 911 dispatchers on behavioral intentions to cooperate with criminal justice professionals.


A factorial vignette design and a university-based sample (N = 488) were used. This study used two different vignettes, each of which involved a different type of emergency (i.e., a burglary incident and a traffic accident) and two experimental manipulations (i.e., procedural injustice and seriousness).


Participants who received the injustice stimuli reported they would be less likely call 911 in the future to report a similar incident, less likely to cooperate with the 911 operator if asked additional questions, and less willing to cooperate with the police once they arrived on the scene. In relative terms, the seriousness of the incident (e.g., amount of property stolen) mattered far less.


This study demonstrates that procedural injustice during 911 calls not only adversely affects dispatchers, but also the police when they arrive on the scene.


Emergency 911 Face attack Legal socialization Police-citizen relations Procedural justice 


Compliance with ethical standards

ASU’s institutional review board approved this protocol.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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