The effects of specialized probation and recovery management checkups (RMCs) on treatment participation, substance use, HIV risk behaviors, and recidivism among female offenders: main findings of a 3-year experiment using subject by intervention interaction analysis
- 269 Downloads
To examine the effects of specialized probation and recovery management checkups (RMCs) on participation in substance use treatment, substance use, HIV risk behaviors, and recidivism.
Women (n = 480) released from the Cook County Jail’s Department of Women’s Justice Services were randomly assigned to either an RMC or control condition and interviewed quarterly for 3 years (greater than 90% completion per wave). At the beginning of each quarter, women were classified as currently on probation (n = 1984) or not (n = 2516). Current probation (subject) and experimental condition (intervention nested within probation status) at the beginning of the quarter were used to predict outcomes in the next quarter. Data included self-reports, urinalysis findings, and county and state arrest records.
In the quarter after being on probation (or not), women offenders reported higher rates of participation in substance use treatment and recovery support services, as well as lower rates of substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Nevertheless, they were more likely to commit crimes and be rearrested or reincarcerated. During quarters when the women were not on probation, RMCs were associated with significant increases in participation in substance use treatment and significant reductions in substance use and HIV risk behaviors. However, RMCs had no additional quarterly benefits when women were on probation. Higher levels of substance use treatment, self-help engagement, and reduced substance use predicted reduced recidivism.
This study demonstrates the effects of specialized probation and RMCs (when not on probation) on favorable outcomes for criminally involved women with substance use disorders.
KeywordsProbation Community supervision Substance use disorder Recovery management checkups (RMC) Female offenders Woman offenders Reentry Alcohol and other drug use HIV risk behavior Recidivism
This article was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) grant DA021174. The authors thank Rod Funk for assistance in preparing the manuscript; the women who participated in the interviews; and the Cook County Jail’s Division 17 staff and administration. The opinions are those of the authors and do not reflect official positions of the government.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2005). Prison statistics: Summary findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2004). HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2003 (15th ed.). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
- Charpentier, P. A. (2003). Urn randomization program gRand v1.10. New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
- Conrad, K. M., Conrad, K. J., Passetti, L. L., Funk, R. R., & Dennis, M. L. (2015). Validation of the Full and Short-Form Self-Help Involvement Scale Against the Rasch Measurement Model. Evaluation Review, 39(4), 395-427.Google Scholar
- De Groot, A. S. (2000). HIV infection among incarcerated women: Epidemic behind bars. AIDS Reader, 10, 287–295.Google Scholar
- Dennis, M. L., Lennox, R. D., & Foss, M. A. (1997). Practical power analysis for substance abuse health services research. In K. J. Bryant, M. Windle, & S. G. West (Eds.), The science of prevention: Methodological advances from alcohol and substance abuse research (pp. 367–405). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elias, G. L., & Ricci, K. (1997). Women in jail: Facility planning issues. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections, US Department of Justice. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/app/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails.aspx?id=166146.Google Scholar
- Escobar, G., & Olson, D. E. (2012). A profile of women released into Cook County communities from jail and prison. Criminal Justice & Criminology: Faculty publications and other works, Paper 8. Retrieved 23 Jul 2014 from: http://ecommons.luc.edu/social_justice/13
- Freudenberg, N., Moseley, J., Labriola, M., Daniels, J., & Murrill, C. (2007). Comparison of health and social characteristics of people leaving New York City jails by age, gender, and race/ethnicity: Implications for public health interventions. Public Health Reports, 122, 733–743.Google Scholar
- Glaze, L. E. (2010). Correctional populations in the United States, 2009. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Program, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
- Humphreys, K. (2004). Circles of recovery: Self-help organizations for addictions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- King, E., & Foley, J. E. (2014). Gender-responsive policy development in corrections: What we know and roadmaps for change. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections.Google Scholar
- Lurigio, A. J., Roque, L., Stalans, L., & Seng, M. (2004). Evaluation of the Cook County Promotion of Women Education and Resources (POWER) Probation Program. Paper presented at the Center for the Advancement of Research, Training, and Education, Loyola University, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
- Lurigio, A. J., Stalans, L., Roque, L., Seng, M., & Ritchie, J. (2007). The effects of specialized supervision on women probationers: An evaluation of the POWER program. In R. Muraskin (Ed.), It’s a crime: Women and justice (4th ed., pp. 127–145). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Maruschak, L. M. (2012). HIV prisons, 2001–2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
- Maruszhak, L. M., & Bonczar, T. P. (2014). Probation and parole in the United States, 2012. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- McCollister, K. E., French, M. T., Freitas, D. M., Dennis, M. L., Scott, C. K., & Funk, R. R. (2013). Cost-effectiveness analysis of Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) for adults with chronic substance use disorders: evidence from a 4-year randomized trial. Addiction, 108, 2166–2174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Minton, T. D., & Golinelli, D. (2014). Jail inmates at midyear 2013: Statistical tables. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Moyers, T. B., Martin, T., Manuel, J. K., Miller, W. R., & Ernst, D. (2010). Revised Global Scales: Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 3.1.1 (MITI 3.1.1). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (CASAA).Google Scholar
- Ney, B., Ramirez, R. & Van Dieten, M. (2012). Ten truths that matter when working with justice involved women. Silver Spring, MD: National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women. Retrieved 9 Jul 2015 from: http://cjinvolvedwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Ten_Truths.pdf.
- Olson, D. E., & Huddle, K. (2013). An examination of admissions, discharges & the population of the Cook County Jail, 2012. Cook County Sheriff’s Reentry Council Research Bulletin. Chicago: Cook County Sheriff’s Office.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2015). National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2013 and 2014 detailed tables. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs2014/NSDUHDetTabs2014.pdf.
- Scott, C. K., & Dennis, M. L. (2008). Recovery Management Check-ups (RMC) Procedure Manual. Illinois: Chestnut Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Scott, C. K., & Dennis, M. L. (2011). Recovery management checkups with adult chronic substance users. In J. F. Kelly & W. L. White (Eds.), Addiction recovery management: Theory, science, and practice (pp. 87–102). New York: Springer Science.Google Scholar
- Scott, C. K., Dennis, M. L., & Lurigio, A. J. (2016). HIV risk among female detainees: A description of practices, perceptions, and knowledge. Journal of Forensic Social Work.Google Scholar
- Taxman, F. S., Perdoni, M. L., & Harrison, L. D. (2007). Drug treatment services for adult offenders: The state of the state. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 329–254.Google Scholar
- Yard, S.S. (2015). Relationship dynamics as inconsistent mediators of traumatic stress and condomless sex among jail-detained women. Doctoral dissertation. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.Retrieved on 2/16/17 from https://dlib.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/34146/Yard_washington_0250E_14970.pdf?.