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Ecological Research

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 1091–1092 | Cite as

8 million phenological and sky images from 29 ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics: the Phenological Eyes Network

  • Shin NagaiEmail author
  • Tomoko Akitsu
  • Taku M. Saitoh
  • Robert C. Busey
  • Karibu Fukuzawa
  • Yoshiaki Honda
  • Tomoaki Ichie
  • Reiko Ide
  • Hiroki Ikawa
  • Akira Iwasaki
  • Koki Iwao
  • Koji Kajiwara
  • Sinkyu Kang
  • Yongwon Kim
  • Kho Lip Khoon
  • Alexander V. Kononov
  • Yoshiko Kosugi
  • Takahisa Maeda
  • Wataru Mamiya
  • Masayuki Matsuoka
  • Trofim C. Maximov
  • Annette Menzel
  • Tomoaki Miura
  • Toshie Mizunuma
  • Tomoki Morozumi
  • Takeshi Motohka
  • Hiroyuki Muraoka
  • Hirohiko Nagano
  • Taro Nakai
  • Tatsuro Nakaji
  • Hiroyuki Oguma
  • Takeshi Ohta
  • Keisuke Ono
  • Runi Anak Sylvester Pungga
  • Roman E. Petrov
  • Rei Sakai
  • Christian Schunk
  • Seikoh Sekikawa
  • Ruslan Shakhmatov
  • Yowhan Son
  • Atsuko Sugimoto
  • Rikie Suzuki
  • Kentaro Takagi
  • Satoru Takanashi
  • Shunsuke Tei
  • Satoshi Tsuchida
  • Hirokazu Yamamoto
  • Eri Yamasaki
  • Megumi Yamashita
  • Tae Kyung Yoon
  • Toshiya Yoshida
  • Mitsunori Yoshimura
  • Shinpei Yoshitake
  • Matthew Wilkinson
  • Lisa Wingate
  • Kenlo Nishida Nasahara
Data Paper

Abstract

We report long-term continuous phenological and sky images taken by time-lapse cameras through the Phenological Eyes Network (http://www.pheno-eye.org. Accessed 29 May 2018) in various ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics. Phenological images are useful in recording the year-to-year variability in the timing of flowering, leaf-flush, leaf-coloring, and leaf-fall and detecting the characteristics of phenological patterns and timing sensitivity among species and ecosystems. They can also help interpret variations in carbon, water, and heat cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, and be used to obtain ground-truth data for the validation of satellite-observed products. Sky images are useful in continuously recording atmospheric conditions and obtaining ground-truth data for the validation of cloud contamination and atmospheric noise present in satellite remote-sensing data. We have taken sky, forest canopy, forest floor, and shoot images of a range of tree species and landscapes, using time-lapse cameras installed on forest floors, towers, and rooftops. In total, 84 time-lapse cameras at 29 sites have taken 8 million images since 1999. Our images provide (1) long-term, continuous detailed records of plant phenology that are more quantitative than in situ visual phenological observations of index trees; (2) basic information to explain the responsiveness, vulnerability, and resilience of ecosystem canopies and their functions and services to changes in climate; and (3) ground-truthing for the validation of satellite remote-sensing observations.

Keywords

Boreal forest Decadal data set Digital camera Grassland Ground-truth Phenological Eyes Network Plant phenology Sky image Temperate forest Tropical forest 

Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin Nagai
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tomoko Akitsu
    • 3
  • Taku M. Saitoh
    • 4
  • Robert C. Busey
    • 5
  • Karibu Fukuzawa
    • 6
  • Yoshiaki Honda
    • 7
  • Tomoaki Ichie
    • 8
  • Reiko Ide
    • 9
  • Hiroki Ikawa
    • 10
  • Akira Iwasaki
    • 11
  • Koki Iwao
    • 12
  • Koji Kajiwara
    • 7
  • Sinkyu Kang
    • 13
  • Yongwon Kim
    • 5
  • Kho Lip Khoon
    • 14
  • Alexander V. Kononov
    • 15
  • Yoshiko Kosugi
    • 16
  • Takahisa Maeda
    • 17
  • Wataru Mamiya
    • 18
  • Masayuki Matsuoka
    • 8
  • Trofim C. Maximov
    • 15
  • Annette Menzel
    • 19
    • 20
  • Tomoaki Miura
    • 21
  • Toshie Mizunuma
    • 22
  • Tomoki Morozumi
    • 23
  • Takeshi Motohka
    • 24
  • Hiroyuki Muraoka
    • 4
  • Hirohiko Nagano
    • 5
  • Taro Nakai
    • 25
  • Tatsuro Nakaji
    • 26
  • Hiroyuki Oguma
    • 9
  • Takeshi Ohta
    • 27
  • Keisuke Ono
    • 10
  • Runi Anak Sylvester Pungga
    • 28
  • Roman E. Petrov
    • 15
  • Rei Sakai
    • 18
  • Christian Schunk
    • 20
  • Seikoh Sekikawa
    • 29
  • Ruslan Shakhmatov
    • 23
  • Yowhan Son
    • 30
  • Atsuko Sugimoto
    • 31
  • Rikie Suzuki
    • 2
  • Kentaro Takagi
    • 32
  • Satoru Takanashi
    • 33
  • Shunsuke Tei
    • 31
  • Satoshi Tsuchida
    • 12
  • Hirokazu Yamamoto
    • 12
  • Eri Yamasaki
    • 34
  • Megumi Yamashita
    • 35
  • Tae Kyung Yoon
    • 36
  • Toshiya Yoshida
    • 18
  • Mitsunori Yoshimura
    • 37
  • Shinpei Yoshitake
    • 4
  • Matthew Wilkinson
    • 38
  • Lisa Wingate
    • 39
  • Kenlo Nishida Nasahara
    • 3
  1. 1.Research and Development Center for Global ChangeJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Arctic Climate and Environment ResearchJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.River Basin Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  5. 5.International Arctic Research CenterUniversity of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA
  6. 6.Nakagawa Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityOtoineppuJapan
  7. 7.Center for Environmental Remote SensingChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  8. 8.Faculty of Agriculture and Marine ScienceKochi UniversityNankokuJapan
  9. 9.National Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan
  10. 10.Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesNational Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan
  11. 11.Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  12. 12.Geological Survey of JapanNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukubaJapan
  13. 13.Department of Environmental ScienceKangwon National UniversityChunchonKorea
  14. 14.Tropical Peat Research InstituteMalaysian Palm Oil BoardBandar Baru BangiMalaysia
  15. 15.Institute for Biological Problems of CryolithozoneSiberian Division of Russian Academy of SciencesYakutskRussia
  16. 16.Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  17. 17.Environmental Management Research InstituteNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukubaJapan
  18. 18.Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityHorokanaiJapan
  19. 19.EcoclimatologyTechnische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany
  20. 20.Institute for Advanced StudyTechnische Universität MünchenGarchingGermany
  21. 21.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human ResourcesUniversity of Hawaiʻi at MānoaHonoluluUSA
  22. 22.Department of BotanyNational Museum of Nature and ScienceTsukubaJapan
  23. 23.Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido University, N10W5SapporoJapan
  24. 24.Earth Observation Research CenterJapan Aerospace Exploration AgencyTsukubaJapan
  25. 25.Institute for Space-Earth Environmental ResearchNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  26. 26.Tomakomai Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityTomakomaiJapan
  27. 27.Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  28. 28.Forest Department SarawakKuchingMalaysia
  29. 29.Department of AgricultureTamagawa UniversityMachidaJapan
  30. 30.Division of Environmental Science and Ecological EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulKorea
  31. 31.Arctic Research CenterHokkaido University, N21W11SapporoJapan
  32. 32.Teshio Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityHoronobeJapan
  33. 33.Kansai Research CenterForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteKyotoJapan
  34. 34.Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental StudiesUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  35. 35.Faculty of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan
  36. 36.Division of Environmental StrategyKorea Environment InstituteSejongRepublic of Korea
  37. 37.PASCO Corporation, Research and Development CenterTokyoJapan
  38. 38.Centre for Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change, Forest ResearchFarnhamUK
  39. 39.INRA, UMR Interaction Sol Plante Atmosphère 1391Villenave d’OrnonFrance

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