Natural licks are required for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riparian forest, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia
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Although the importance of natural licks for terrestrial mammals is widely acknowledged, we report here for the first time its importance for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riverine forest in Borneo. Our results clearly demonstrated that various mammals, including bearded pig, sambar deer, and endangered orang-utans, were using the natural lick, though large arboreal/avian herbivore/omnivore animals were not attracted to the natural lick. In addition, the diversity of mammal species recorded in this study was lower than those recorded in the dry lowland forest. Possible reasons for this difference between the different forest types are discussed.
KeywordsBearded pig Camera-trap Mineral Orang-utan Sambar deer
We thank the Economic Planning Unit of the Malaysian Government, the Sabah Biodiversity Centre, the Sabah Wildlife Department, the Sabah Forestry Department staff, and our research assistants (Asnih, Shah, and Hartiman) in Sabah, Malaysia, for support. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments. This study was partly financed by the HOPE and Human Evolution Project from KUPRI, the National Geographic Society (#9254-13, US) to IM, Nagao Environmental Foundation Japan to HB and Grants-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (#24657170, JP) to IM, for Young Scientist (#26711027 & #21770261, JP) to IM, Scientific Research (#25291100, JP) to G. Hanya, and for Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation to KUPRI, from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and was conducted in compliance with animal care regulations and applicable Malaysian laws. Lastly, the authors would like to thank Enago (www.enago.jp) for the English language review.
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