Ecological Research

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 191–195 | Cite as

Natural licks are required for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riparian forest, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

  • Ikki MatsudaEmail author
  • Marc Ancrenaz
  • Yoshihiro Akiyama
  • Augustine Tuuga
  • Noreen Majalap
  • Henry Bernard
Note and Comment


Although the importance of natural licks for terrestrial mammals is widely acknowledged, we report here for the first time its importance for large terrestrial mammals in a degraded riverine forest in Borneo. Our results clearly demonstrated that various mammals, including bearded pig, sambar deer, and endangered orang-utans, were using the natural lick, though large arboreal/avian herbivore/omnivore animals were not attracted to the natural lick. In addition, the diversity of mammal species recorded in this study was lower than those recorded in the dry lowland forest. Possible reasons for this difference between the different forest types are discussed.


Bearded pig Camera-trap Mineral Orang-utan Sambar deer 



We thank the Economic Planning Unit of the Malaysian Government, the Sabah Biodiversity Centre, the Sabah Wildlife Department, the Sabah Forestry Department staff, and our research assistants (Asnih, Shah, and Hartiman) in Sabah, Malaysia, for support. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments. This study was partly financed by the HOPE and Human Evolution Project from KUPRI, the National Geographic Society (#9254-13, US) to IM, Nagao Environmental Foundation Japan to HB and Grants-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (#24657170, JP) to IM, for Young Scientist (#26711027 & #21770261, JP) to IM, Scientific Research (#25291100, JP) to G. Hanya, and for Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation to KUPRI, from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and was conducted in compliance with animal care regulations and applicable Malaysian laws. Lastly, the authors would like to thank Enago ( for the English language review.

Supplementary material

11284_2014_1219_MOESM1_ESM.doc (94 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 93 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ikki Matsuda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc Ancrenaz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yoshihiro Akiyama
    • 4
  • Augustine Tuuga
    • 3
  • Noreen Majalap
    • 5
  • Henry Bernard
    • 6
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan
  2. 2.Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation ProjectSandakanMalaysia
  3. 3.Sabah Wildlife DepartmentKota KinabaluMalaysia
  4. 4.Coastal, Marine and Disaster Prevention Department, National Institute for Land and Infrastructure ManagementMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismKanagawaJapan
  5. 5.Sabah Forestry DepartmentSabah Forest Research CentreKota KinabaluMalaysia
  6. 6.Institute for Tropical Biology and ConservationUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

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