Ecological Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 875–881 | Cite as

Do tigers displace leopards? If so, why?

  • Morten OddenEmail author
  • Per Wegge
  • Trude Fredriksen
Original Article


We investigated predictions concerning the competitive relationships between tigers Panthera tigris and leopards Panthera pardus in Bardia National Park, Nepal, based on spatial distributions of scats and territorial markings (sign), analyses of scat content and census of wild ungulate prey. Medium-sized ungulates, in particular chital Axis axis, was the main food of both predators, but leopards consumed significantly larger proportions of domestic animals, small mammals, and birds than tigers. Tiger sign were never found outside the park, while leopard sign occurred both inside and outside, and were significantly closer to the park border than tiger sign. Significantly higher prey densities at locations of tiger sign than that of leopards were mainly due to a preference of the latter species for the park border areas. Our results imply that interference competition––and not competition for food––was a limiting factor for the leopard population, whose distribution was restricted to the margins of the tiger territories. We suggest that the composition of the prey base is a key factor in understanding the different results and interpretations reported in studies on tiger/leopard coexistence. There are two potential mechanisms that link interference competition and prey: (1) low abundance of large ungulate prey decreases foraging efficiency of tigers, leading to increased energetic stress and aggression towards leopards; and (2) increased diet overlap due to scarcity of large prey leads to increased encounter rates and increased levels of interference competition.


Avoidance behavior Resource partitioning Exploitative competition Competition refuge 



This study was funded by the Royal Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) as part of a collaborative research program between the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation/Nepal and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Bardia National Park (BNP) and Nepal Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) provided technical support. In particular, we want to thank Narayan Choudary and Tanku Choudary (BNP), and Shanta Raj Jnawali, Man Bahadur Lama, Man Singh Lama, and Suk Bahadur (NTNC) for assistance during fieldwork. Manuela Panzacchi, Jon E. Swenson, Ullas Karanth, and Atle Mysterud provided constructive input to the manuscript. All field activities on which this research was based comply with the laws of Nepal.


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Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Natural Resource ManagementNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  2. 2.Kristiansand SNorway
  3. 3.Hedmark University CollegeElverumNorway

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